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63d Year. MAY, 1888. No. 3. 


In the long gallery of the Louvre there is, as everybody knows, 
a series of twenty-one pictures representing scenes in the life of 
Marie de Mddicis, huge canvases painted within the space of two 
years by Peter Paul Rubens. After making all due allowance for 
the part taken by the pupils of the master, this series is still an 
astonishing evidence of his qualities as well as of his defects. What 
a pell-mell of redundant forms and splendid colors, of warriors and 
courtiers in armor and brocades, with gods and goddesses in the 
costume of Olympus, of weapons and architecture and clouds and 
draperies, the whole teeming with life and motion, so exuberant, so 
over-full, that the brain of the observer begins to swim in the midst 
of his admiration. He will be long perhaps in making up his mind 
as to what are the proportions of praise and blame to be meted out 
to this wonderful series, but none the less, if he have something of 
artistic discernment in him, he will see that it shadows forth the 
entire Rubens, the man as well as his work. He can divine the 
painter who was equally great in all branches of his art—allegories, his¬ 
tory, landscape, genre , flowers, martyrdoms, beasts—who was capable 
of painting in sixteen days the Assumption of the Virgin over the 
high altar of the Antwerp Cathedral, who loved splendor and good 
living, who was happy and prosperous, who “ amused himself at 
times with being ambassador,” and then returned to his studio and 
“ Soulageait sa feconditt en creant des mondes .” * 

* Taine : Philosophic de TArt dans les Pays Bas, p. 139. 


Copyright, 1888, by A. C. Armstrong & Son. 



And not only is this series of pictures a revelation of the life, the 
mind, and nature of the painter, it is a sort of magic mirror reflect¬ 
ing the images of a whole family of intelligences, of all the generous 
and prolific geniuses distinguished rather for force than for delicacy, 
with whom invention is like a flood bearing on its surface things 
great and small, precious and ignoble. Gazing into the mirror one 
may see a procession of such coming from all walks of life, among 
them Michel Angelo, Peter the Great, Mirabeau, so dissimilar among 
themselves, in spite of points of resemblance, that one perceives that 
the glass, like nearly all analogies, performs its office with a certain 
liberty of distortion. One is therefore less surprised at recognizing 
among the number, stumbling in the impetuosity of his haste, a 
short, thick figure, with a bull neck and sensuous lips, but with a 
bold, clear, and kindly eye,—the subject of this study. Let us look 
at him a little more nearly with a view of learning what sort of man 
he was, and to what extent his presence in this procession is justified. 


The energy, the tireless activity, the teeming invention of the 
man were something worthy of wonder. For long periods together 
he worked from twelve to eighteen hours a day, chiefly at night, 
scarcely eating, and kept up by copious draughts of black coffee. It 
was a sort of fury of work, resulting in almost incredible production. 
For example, in 1830 he published La Vendetta, Une Double Famille , 
Etude de Femme , Gobseck, A utre Etude de Femme, La Grande Bretcche, 
Adieu, VElixir de Longue Vie, Sarrasine, La Peau de Chagrin ;* in 
addition to writing other works which were finished later, or perhaps 
never appeared, as well as articles for the newspapers, besides the 
labor of correcting proof, which he repeated often as many as twelve 
times, so loading the margins with alterations that, on occasion, the 
work was thus nearly entirely rewritten. Sarrasine was completed 
within a week. They tell of Beckford that he did Vathek at a sitting. 
It was a feat that he never repeated, while Balzac performed similar 
ones over and over again during his whole literary life. Nor is this 
all: these works were repeatedly refashioned for succeeding editions. 
Divided, combined with other inventions—two or more tales were, 
on occasion, melted down into one—republished under new titles, 

* Vie de Balzac by his sister Madame Surville. The detailed list in De Lovenjoul’s 
Histoire des CEuvres de Balzac varies slightly from this, but is even more astonishing. 



the labor of former years was forever returning to swell that of the 

And yet even this did not exhaust the activity of Balzac. He 
dreamed of political life, and attempted more than once to enter the 
Chamber of Deputies. He founded at least two reviews, and, in the 
case of one of them, wrote nearly everything it contained during the 
three months of its existence; he engaged in type-founding, in print¬ 
ing, in paper-making, in publishing (Madame Surville says he was 
the first to issue the compact editions that have since enriched so 
many publishers); he tried to work the scorice left by the ancient 
Romans about the silver mines of Sardinia; he defended a criminal 
before the courts of justice, and, not content with being lawyer, miner, 
manufacturer, printer, publisher, and politician, his head was forever 
full of the most magnificent schemes for making fortunes, as busy with 
the ordinary world of industry and commerce as he was with that 
other world where he was supreme, a world where there was room 
enough and to spare for him, or for any intelligence short of the highest. 

For, think of it! The world of the Come'die Humaine embraces 
upwards of two thousand persons, who were for the greater part as 
real to their creator as were his mother and sister, his friends Gozlan 
and Laurent, Jan, or his wife. Every one remembers the story of 
Jules Sandeau, how he came one day to Balzac full of the illness of 
his sister, and how Balzac, after seeming to listen for a time, finally 
broke in, “ But to come back to real things—who is going to marry 
Eugenie Grandet ? ” Or how he used to entertain the family circle 
with news of what was going on in his own particular world—“ Have 
you heard whom Felix de Vandenesse is about to marry? A 
demoiselle de Granville. He is making an excellent match ; the 
Granvilles are rich, in spite of what Mademoiselle de Bellefeuille 
has cost the family.” Or how, when his sister begged to know some¬ 
what better the past life of a character of whom too little was told, 
he replied, “I did not know Monsieur de Jordy until he came to 
Nemours.” But after that time he lived with this same M. de Jordy 
in the closest intimacy up to his death in 1823. 

It was indeed a world apart by itself, where the people grew up, 
developed in character, loved, married, enjoyed, suffered and died, 
just as in that other where the rest of us live. Balzac’s spirit, 

* E. g., the novel published in the ordinary cheap edition as Un Menage de Garfon, 
is included in the definitive edition as La Rabouilleuse, the title under which it appeared 
at first in 1842. 



which inhabited chiefly in Paris, where it had relations with every 
class of society, used once in a while to take a journey to Douai, or 
Saumur, or Tours, or Issoudun, or Angouleme, to keep abreast of 
what was doing in those cities. It was familiar with the whole of 
France, though it went outside only by way of exception, as when it 
visited Tarragona and brought back to Paris Madame Diard, or to 
that Spanish island in the Mediterranean in pursuit of the Duchesse 
de Langeais, whom it had formerly much admired. But in French 
provincial towns it was so at home that it could give you the 
photograph of every street and every house, and when it led you 
indoors could take you through every room from cellar to garret, 
calling your attention to each article of furniture, being able even to 
tell you their cost, if worth while. As for the inhabitants, it counted 
their very wrinkles, noted the least of their daily habits, actions, or 
sentiments, and made their business and their interests its own. So 
thoroughly was this done that, as M. Taine has already said, one 
almost needs to be a merchant to understand Cesar Birotteau, or a 
magistrate to follow Une Tenebreuse Affaire .* Just so Balzac was 
banker with Nucingen and physician with Bianchow, or he became 
botanist in following the windings of the Indre, student of philoso¬ 
phy with Louis Lambert, inventor for David S£chard, herald for all 
the noble families of his acquaintance to such an extent that, as we 
hear, a work is in preparation which shall publish the armorial bear¬ 
ings of all the nobility in the “ Balzacien ” society, f Never since 
novels were written, has an imaginary world been created so popu¬ 
lous, so varied, so knit together, so studied, and so described, outside 
and in, with all possible causes, bearings, and consequences, as this 
of the Comedie Humaine. 

Is it not plain that this genius, so many-sided, so strong, so fruit¬ 
ful, is of the intellectual race of him who painted the Descent from 
the Cross? And not alone in abundance of production may the rela¬ 
tionship be seen, but in the largeness with which each individual work 
is conceived, in the breadth and force of touch, in a common love for 
splendors, and, in so far as literary and pictorial art may be described 
in the same terms, in a certain fulness and exaggeration of forms, a 
tumult of movement, a daring and richness of coloring. The treat¬ 
ment of these qualities, however, as far as Balzac is concerned, belongs 
to a later part of this essay. 

* Nouveaux Essais de Critique et d’Histoire, p. 87. 
f Monsieur de Lovenjoul. See Corf bon et Christophe, p. 470. 



Nevertheless, it would be unfair not to note that in this case also 
such differences may be found as always exist between the present 
representative of a family and the ancestor of three centuries ago 
whose portrait he seems to make live again. Perhaps some of the 
effect is due to distance, but Rubens has the air of having done 
everything easily in obedience to the first strong impulse, to have 
accomplished his greatest works just as he played at being ambassa¬ 
dor , to have been always fortunate and prosperous, to have taken 
his greatness by storm, facile princeps. Fame was no such holiday 
comrade for Balzac. She came to him, it is true, at a sufficiently 
early moment in his career, and remained by him faithful though 
full of caprices. But she would not allow herself to be taken serious¬ 
ly ; she not only did not secure crosses and embassies for her step¬ 
son, but she did not second him enough to gain for him even the 
dignity of deputy, and she did not bring with her fortune. Money ? 
Yes, and a good deal of it, but never enough to command ease and 
serenity. The story of Balzac’s life is, in fact, a painful one of struggle 
and disappointment, so obstinate on both sides that the poor great 
man broke down finally just at the moment when fortune seemed to 
have relented. For him she was all along a malicious jade ; she gave 
him a brain teeming with resources, and energy to put them one 
after another into execution, but she managed to spoil everything. 
Some of his inventions have since brought wealth to people who 
never knew him; but to Balzac they brought only that load of debt 
under which he labored all his life and which was the primal cause 
of his untimely death.* He worked on like a giant, refusing to 
despair, and his fertile brain continually suggested to him new ex¬ 
pedients for compelling fortune; but one and all they ended in sink¬ 
ing him deeper and deeper in embarrassments. 

Look but a moment at the young men whom Balzac sent up to 
Paris with but slender equipment of either money or scruples, and 
with only so much brains as their creator chose to endow them with— 
his Rastignac, his Nucingen, his du Tillet—and compare the facility 
with which they achieved riches and honors with his own painful 
and scantily rewarded struggles with the world. But think twice 
before you sneer at his failures, or even before humiliating him with 
your pity. Fortune had her compensations even for him—chief of all 
in that she made him share the existence of his creations. So when 
she seemed to be paying his efforts in monnaie de singe, she left him 

* He died August 18, 1850, aged fifty-one. 



his secret for transforming this into gold, inappreciable to others but 
good in its way. For instance, he conceived the idea of a drama,* 
and immediately, according to his wont, began to compute the profits 
before even putting pen to paper. “ With Frtddrick Lemaitre there 
must be at least a hundred and fifty representations at, taking one 
with another, five thousand francs apiece—that makes seven hun¬ 
dred and fifty thousand francs—seven hundred and fifty thousand 
francs gives the author, at the usual rate of twelve per cent., more 
than eighty thousand francs. Then there are five or six thousand 
francs of tickets, and ten thousand copies of the play at three francs 
each. . . .” You see the computation is agreeable enough, only 

the drama was either never written or else failed. Failure was a rude 
blow, but there was a way to bear even that. After the suppression 
of Vautrin , Gozlan went to condole with the author at Les Jar- 
dies, and found him occupied in parcelling out strips of land on 
the confines of his property, one for a model dairy, another for a 
market-garden, a third for a vineyard (the wine of which was to com¬ 
mand three thousand francs the cask), etc.,—with an assured return 
altogether of twenty thousand francs a year! No doubt pain was 
here the stimulus of his ingenuity, but his imagination had of itself 
sought the true anodyne. 

Happily for Balzac, the courage, the energy, the faith in illusions 
lasted unassailed even while their employment was fast using up his 
strength. His broad shoulders bent, his heart broke, once for all, 
just as fortune had at last relented from her rigors with regard to 
things material, and, as if by a sort of delicacy toward one whom she 
had treated too hardly, had not taken away the gifts that had con¬ 
soled him in earlier days. If then he was of kin to Rubens in point 
of force, of fertility and variety of genius, he was not that either in 
respect of the fortune that waited on his efforts, nor, indeed, in ease, 
serenity, or facility. Few things that he wrote give an impression of 
power exercised with pleasure. In most of them there is a mass of 
erudition filling half the volume, which the reader is apt to skip, 
and which for the writer was often as difficult to manage as the bag¬ 
gage and provision train of an army in a wild country. The story 
gets painfully under way, and even when the action is at white-heat 
it preserves the movement of a heavy body. Then, as we know, he 
was never contented, and worked over and over again what he had 
written, and after that was the terror of printers with his proof-read- 

* Gozlan : Balzac en Pantoujles. 


2 9 5 

mg. Moreover, his relations with the world of literature were not 
altogether pleasant. He was at war with the newspapers and with 
several reviews, partly because he told disagreeable truths about 
journalism, partly because his punctiliousness about what was due 
to him led him into various lawsuits. Looked at from this side, one 
must own that, if he was of the Rubens order, he wore its garb with 
the seamy side out. 

As for the literary vanity, that first “ infirmity of noble minds,” 
which the enemies of Balzac thought excessive in him, his friends 
found it easy enough to forgive because of its extreme, its childlike, 
frankness, because it was merely part and parcel of the intensity and 
exaggeration of his every sentiment, because it was, at least to them, 
open to correction, and, finally, because he was essentially kind and 
“ bon enfant .” 

That Balzac was sordidly devoted to gain, as Mr. Henry James 
in a charming and generally appreciative essay gives one to believe, 
there is at least reason to doubt. He was exacting of his publishers, 
his correspondence is full of talk about money, but one should remem¬ 
ber that the great, forever unsatisfied labor of his life was to shake 
off the load of debt that oppressed him. This fact alone may ac¬ 
count for his admiration for those who were above such cares, as well 
as for the avidity he showed in his own affairs. 

It is to be regretted that no adequate biography of Balzac has as 
yet been given to the public. The long list of books and articles re¬ 
lative to Balzac given by Monsieur de Lovenjoul * (about ninety 
books and over one hundred articles) gives one little else but gossip. 
Though one may extract from the whole a sufficient and just idea of 
the great novelist, it is yet at the cost of a labor that one would 
be glad to avoid. 


Balzac was one of the writers who would seem to have been 
created expressly to furnish support to such a theory as Taine’s of 
the influence of circumstances in determining the bent of genius. 
Indeed, by the aid of a little arrangement of facts, with an occasional 
suppression, the great critic has already made him serve as an 
illustration of the value of the French milieu toward producing a 
greater novelist than the English Thackeray.f We prefer to keep 

" :f De Lovenjoul, Histoire des (Euvres de Balzac. 

f Essais de Critique et d'Histoire and the last volume of English Literature. The 
above remark does not apply to the able article devoted to Balzac in the Nouveaux Essais. 



to the easier and safer task of showing how Balzac’s self was repro¬ 
duced in his work. Here he who runs may read. Even to the 
squat, stout figure with the eager gait, which seems the image of his 
style, the man may always be descried between the lines of his 
books. His style, at its best, has about it a sort of plain straight¬ 
forwardness that we once heard characterized as “ square-toed ” ; 
while, at its worst, it has a vulgar emphasis, heavy, heated, over¬ 
loaded, as if its author in perspiration, with a pack upon his shoulders, 
were jostling his way through a crowd. Of course a bit of observa¬ 
tion of the utmost delicacy may be embodied in his worst manner ; 
it often is. In fact the style, like the matter it contains, is marked 
by contradictions. One can never foresee when a page of the sim¬ 
plest narration will be interrupted by a rigmarole of philosophy, or 
science, or mysticism clothed in all the splendor of tinsel and fustian. 
A much smaller man would easily avoid such offences against taste. 
But Balzac was encyclopaedic, and had pretensions to omniscience, 
and he poured forth the torrent of things great and small at such 
a headlong rate that it could not always be clear. His style was 
never better, simpler, more nervous and forcible, than in the literary 
criticisms of the Revue Parisienne, as, for instance, in the savage 
assault on Ste. Beuve, apropos of Port Royal, which Ste. Beuve 
never really forgave, and which, very likely, was the origin of the 
malignant foot-note, spoken of by Mr. James, where the great critic 
said that Balzac was the “ grossest, greediest example of literary 
vanity that he had ever known.” The revenge is pardonable, con¬ 
sidering the offence. The justice that one administers to a man 
who has outraged every sensibility, is never quite the same thing as 
that meted out to friends. 

And it is not alone the style that suffers from a plethora of ideas 
and erudition—the conduct of the stories is equally embarrassed. 
Balzac not only knows the surroundings, the setting of his person¬ 
ages to the minutest detail, but he cannot make them act until he 
has told it all. The town, the street, the house and its furniture 
must all be described before we are introduced to the inhabitants; 
then they come with their clothes, their habits, their features, even 
to the accidents of conformation, their interests, their belongings, 
their society. Sometimes more than half the story is taken up with 
details that other writers would, at the utmost, have dismissed in a 
few pages. Nor is this all: the narrative is continually stopped for 
digressions on every conceivable subject—art, science, agriculture, 



government, the police, finance, manufactures, clairvoyance, journal¬ 
ism— 0 n all of which, as well as on everything else, he thinks he has 
something worth saying. Sometimes, as, for example, in La Maison 
Nucingen , the digression is nearly the whole book, and in general it 
is only after nothing remains to be described that the author begins 
to warm with the passions and actions of his people. 

And then, when once the stage is cleared for the play, what 
people they are ! How full their veins are of blood, how palpable 
their flesh, how they live and move before you ! We doubt if in the 
whole range of fiction there is another world so full of real, breath¬ 
ing existences. Taine was right; after Shakespeare and St. Simon, 
Balzac is our greatest magazine of documents on human nature. 
Where can we look for such another? Dickens has perhaps as 
many figures, and they come before you and grimace and play their 
antics in a very lively manner; but with very few exceptions they are 
only fragments of people, mostly mere physiognomies and oddities, 
not whole people, and the most genuinely alive among them are the 
fantastic caricatures like Quilp, that your reason rejects even while 
your imagination accepts. Dickens’ figures are so strong in effect, 
simply because to him too they were hallucinations; but he was 
haunted by the maimed, the halt, and the blind, while Balzac’s 
familiars were sound and whole in mind and limb. They are like 
the companions of our daily walks; we know them as completely 
and from as many sides, and, whether we like them or not, we are 
forced to own them as of our own flesh and blood. 

It has been often said that the excessive minuteness of Balzac’s 
descriptions defeats the end of description, confusing the reader in 
the multitude of details. M. Taine says, for instance, that there are 
so many mullions and transoms to the Hotel du Gu£nie at Gu£rande* 
that one cannot see the house. We venture to believe that such 
description produces its effect in another way: whence its minute¬ 
ness and exactitude, if not borrowed from nature ? It is impossible 
to avoid the conviction that, if a writer gives the utmost character¬ 
istic of a person or thing, it must be because he is familiar with the 
original; the too great intimacy evinced is, while it confuses us, 
just one reason the more for accepting his testimony as final. And 
Balzac is not only a close observer of what he sees, but he is strongly 
impressed by it; that also is a guarantee of his truthfulness. If he 
sees too much, it is because he has felt too keenly. The wife of 

* Beatrix. 



Balthazar Claes* sits in her parlor and hears the approach of her 
husband’s footsteps, which “ it was impossible to listen to with in¬ 
difference.” Why so? Simply because she felt deeply, and Balzac 
with her, that Balthazar was walking the way of ruin. When he 
enters the room, Balzac notes that “ his eyes, of a rich, clear blue, 
were marked by sudden, quick movements like those of the great 
seekers of occult causes.” Now the utmost that we should have 
noticed would have been that the eyes were restless; we never 
should have dreamed of drawing such an inference from their mo¬ 
tion. Nor would Balzac, had he been less troubled about the fa¬ 
tal mania that bewitched Balthazar, and seemed to his observer to 
impress itself on all his surroundings. So he remarks that Lucien 
de Rubempref had broad hips, “ like most men who are sharp, not to 
say, crafty.” The reader may smile incredulously at the generaliza¬ 
tion of the trait, but at the same time he has gained in conviction as 
to the reality of Lucien. It is in a similar manner that the most in¬ 
tricate description of Balzac, whether it makes you see the object de¬ 
scribed or not, ends in convincing you that the author is telling the 
truth: nothing but reality could have been so exactly observed or so 
strongly felt. 

It would be too much to claim that every personage in the Comd- 
die Humaine impresses one as being a living existence. Balzac, like 
Dickens, was not nearly as successful in portraying fine gentlemen 
and ladies as he was with mortals of coarser clay, but, unlike Dickens, 
he did not recognize the limits of his power. Indeed he seems to 
have found a particular pleasure in painting the leaders of society. 
Many readers, witnessing the author’s abject adoration of these bril¬ 
liant creatures of his imagination, together with the lapses of taste 
of which they are too frequently guilty, have hastily concluded that 
he could not have had opportunities of modelling them from proper 
originals. The reader of Balzac’s correspondence, however, knows 
that such was not the case, but that he was at least as well placed 
for studying a Madame de Beaus£ant as for drawing Vautrin. We 
learn, too, that on occasion his descriptions of fine ladies were re¬ 
vised and approved, before being made public, by real women of the 
world. We may allow, further, that undoubted ladies and gentlemen 
often do things that jar sadly with our ideals of the conduct to be 
expected from such people. We may also grant that much, perhaps 
all, of the author’s admiration of his great people is not so much the 

* Recherche de VAbsolu, f Illusionsperducs : “ Les deux Poetes.” 



snobbery that the Anglo-Saxon, with the keen scent of his race for 
this foible, is apt to take it for, as it is another instance of the au¬ 
thor’s intensity of vision—he cannot help making his princesses and 
dandies as transcendent in their way as his criminals or sharpers are 
in theirs. In such case his adoration is only a proof that he believes 
as firmly in the existence of the one as of the other set of beings. 
And yet, one may grant all this and still feel that the Duchesse de 
Maufrigneuse or Henri de Marsay have not the force of vitality in 
them that impresses one in Valerie Marneffe or Philippe Bridan. 

In fact the genius of Balzac was full of singular contradic¬ 
tions. One is continually surprised that such a giant in force should 
display on occasion such weakness, that the most exquisite delicacy 
should at times go hand in hand with grossness or plump tasteless¬ 
ness, that the writer who in description seems guided by an insight, 
almost unerring, into human nature, should in conversations contin¬ 
ually be making people to say things that they either never could or 
never would have said. Here we touch upon one of the greatest 
(perhaps the greatest) defects of his novels. No one has ever equalled 
Balzac in description—as long as he is occupied in that he is nearly 
impeccable; but as soon as his personages begin to talk at length, or 
write letters, they become so many miniature Balzacs. If they are 
people of any pretensions to education or cleverness, they repeat 
even the peculiar vocabulary of their great father; you recognize at 
once the car , the aussi, the nest ilpas , with the favorite adjectives, 
and they have all the uncertainties of his taste. That is why his 
young girls are such conspicuous failures—they do all this and 
worse. They talk about themselves as knowingly as Balzac himself, 
who had all sorts of forbidden knowledge at his fingers’ ends, and 
who was steeped through and through with sensualism, materialism, 
and cynicism, could have done. When Mademoiselle de Chaulieu 
was waiting so impatiently to be “ dcniaistfe,” she was already capable 
of writing in a manner that might have scandalized the most hard¬ 
ened duchess of her world. There is scarcely a girl in the Cointdie 
Humaine , though some of them are otherwise charming figures, who 
does not at least once in a while let fall some expression utterly dis¬ 
cordant with her character. Even Eugenie Grandet is not exempt 
from this reproach. 

As far as the mere language of these people is concerned, Balzac 
might easily have rendered it more truthful had he wished. The ad¬ 
mirable Contes Drolatiques are there to prove that he could, if he 



thought it worth his while, revive the style of the sixteenth century. 
The Journal des Goncourt * calls attention to the fact that all his mili¬ 
tary men of the Empire reproduce the short phrases, the incisive 
manner of Napoleon’s conversation. The life of the emperor, as re¬ 
counted by Goguelat,f is a masterpiece of popular narration; one 
wishes that his ordinary style could have been as good. The talk 
of his common people is generally true with regard to the ideas ex¬ 
pressed, and often,—in spite of the accentuation of their solecisms, 
which Balzac, as a man whose sense of humor was heavy, could not 
resist,—as to the mode of expression. If then his fine ladies, his vir¬ 
tuous women and young girls do not talk in character, the fault is 
not merely a literary one; it lies less in the art of the writer than in 
the nature of the man. 

It is here that the thick-set man with the bull-neck and the sen¬ 
suous lips comes uppermost again. The strong, coarse, animal na¬ 
ture enabled him to support the tremendous labor of so many years, 
but on condition of impressing itself upon the work. We must re¬ 
member that this, comprising about one hundred titles—with the 
plays and the Contes Drolatiques —or forty-five volumes in the ordi¬ 
nary cheap edition, was the production of a little less than twenty 
years. We must also call to mind that, though other writers may 
have produced as many volumes in an equal length of time, the 
quality of these renders the number at least doubly extraordinary. 
Few of them can be called light reading—still fewer could have been 
easy writing—the amount of knowledge, of thought, of observation 
that they represent is almost encyclopaedic. You cannot imagine 
one of them to have been written as George Sand wrote her charm¬ 
ing tales, which were simply poured forth as a spring pours its waters ; 
they are built up as is a coral-reef, or as a coral-reef might be that 
was built by the aid of steam and machinery. The very sentences 
are closely packed. It is because his genius reposed upon such a 
solid physical structure that it could accomplish all this ; but the 
physical structure was of the earth, earthy ; it had eager material ap¬ 
petites, and these were so strong,—so mighty is a more literal expres¬ 
sion for it,—that they bent, and warped, and colored, and permeated 
the genius. The spirit could not create an image of beauty and 
purity but the flesh must come and mark it with an earth-stain. 

Hence it is that the finer characters nearly always reserve for us 
some disappointment, and hence it is that the greatest successes of 

*Vol. I., p. 185. 

f Le Medecin de Campagne. 



Balzac are among people in the middle and lower classes, people oc¬ 
cupied with every-day, often sordid, things, or among those who are 
frankly given over to their passions and vices. His best people here 
are, like Cdsar Birotteau or Madame Bridan, of few ideas and common¬ 
place aspirations, but they are genuinely good. It may even be the 
secret of the beauty of Marguerite Claes, who does not seem at first 
to belong to this class, that her energies are so occupied with the 
hard, practical work of saving the fortune of the family. At any rate, 
it is these 

“Creatures not too bright and good 
For human nature’s daily food.” 

tnat are the most cheering figures in Balzac. There are not too 
many of them, and the few that there are only too often end their 
lives in sorrow, for it is a sad world that they live in. Unscrupulous 
force, cunning, and shamelessness win all the great prizes, while 
modesty and innocence go to the wall. For the rest, they are sor¬ 
did, vicious, or imbecile. The struggle for existence, the struggle for 
power and precedence, stripped of all that makes them sightly, 
seem the chief characteristics of the world, with the manias, the pas¬ 
sions and vices that enslave, and with the malignity that makes 
society its prey. 

How comes it, then, that such a society is not only endurable to 
the spectator, but even fascinating ? It is simply because of the 
pleasure we all have in regarding the exercise of power,—and the 
power is here unmistakable,—together with that which we feel in the 
contemplation of art, art which can make us delight in that which 
in real life would well-nigh crush us. M. Taine, among the clever de¬ 
finitions he cites of Balzac’s work, gives this, that it is the “Mus/e 
Dupuytren in — folio —,” a collection of models of anatomy and of the 
various diseases to which the human body is subject. But M. Taine 
recognizes the fact that this is incomplete, although Balzac had all 
the curiosity of a pathologist with regard to cases of imperfect or 
morbid development. He treats such cases not only as a man of 
science, but much more as an artist. “ Balzac loves his Valerie,” 
says Taine in contrasting his method with that of Thackeray toward 
Becky Sharp. And this is true, for, though it is twenty years 
since we read La Cousine Bette , the impression made upon our 
young imagination remains as fresh as ever. We fear that even to¬ 
day our sympathies might not be on the side of the excellent 



Madame Hulot. You see the great scapegrace of an artist painted 
the saints with conviction, but the sinners with love. 


Mr. Howells, toward the end of his work on modern Italian poets 
says, by the way, of Carducci, that he “ seems an agnostic flowering 
of the old romantic stalk.” We think we understand Mr. Howells’ 
meaning sufficiently well to appropriate his saying to our own uses, 
for it was the old romantic stalk that produced the realistic flower of 
Balzac. Indeed Balzac claimed something very like that for himself. 
In turning over the pages of the little Revue Parisienne, —the review 
that he carried on pretty much by himself alone through the three 
months of its existence,—our attention was taken by an article on 
Stendhal’s Chartreuse de Parme, which, to our surprise, we found to 
be preceded by a sort of manifesto of realism. It is not accompanied 
by a blare of trumpets, like the similar composition of Hugo pre¬ 
fixed to Cromwell , and it is all the better for its modesty; without 
being remarkable either for brilliancy or wisdom, it is saved—in part 
by its obscurity, in part by its tone—from the blatant absurdity of 
the Hugonian production. Balzac begins by saying that the litera¬ 
ture of his epoch, unlike that of preceding centuries, which had been 
too much under the influence of some one man or system, belonged 
to three classes: the literature of imagery, of which Hugo was the 
most distinguished figure, with Gautier and Ste. Beuve (this last 
either as a malicious pleasantry or with exclusive reference to his 
poetry) as followers ; the literature of ideas, including among others 
Alfred de Musset, Merimee, Leon Gozlan(!), B£ranger, and Casimir 
Delavigne, and, more complete than the other two, because uniting 
them and aiming at an all-embracing view of things, the eclectic school , 
to which belong Scott, Madame de Stael, Cooper, George Sand, and 
to which he gives his personal adhesion. He finds that the writers of 
the first class have but little feeling for the comic, and, with the ex¬ 
ception of Gautier, know nothing of dialogue. Victor Hugo makes 
his characters speak too much his own language ; instead of becoming 
one with them, he merely puts himself inside his personages. The 
works of the second class are marked by naturalness and strict 
observation. As to the third class he is somewhat vague ; still he 
gives as his reason for adhesion to it: “I do not believe a picture 
of modern society to be possible by the severe methods of the litera- 



ture of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The introduction 
of the dramatic element, of the tableau, of description, of dialogue, 
seems to me indispensable in modern literature.” His programme 
was, as you see, more modest than that of the representatives of 
what he calls the literature of imagery, but then his programme 
influenced his work. 

Curiously enough, he assigns Stendhal to the second class, and con¬ 
siders the Chartreuse de Partite as the chef-d’oeuvre of the literature 
of ideas, although in parts it belongs to both the other schools. He 
little expected that a day would come when he and Stendhal would 
be considered as the two pioneers in this century of a literature with 
the most arrogantly exclusive claims. It is strange that he should 
have admired Stendhal as unreservedly as he did, without perceiving 
what their geniuses had in common. 

Nevertheless, the two were, without any consciousness'of what 
they were doing, laying the foundations of the school of literature 
that was to succeed them. They raised no standard of revolt, there 
was no break between them and their fellows in art. Indeed they felt 
the same influences with the rest, and, as far at least as Balzac is con¬ 
cerned, thought that any peculiarities they might possess were only 
different manifestations of the new movement in which all were 
taking part. Balzac pnce cried, with the generosity and vanity that 
were both characteristic of him, “ There are only three writers in 
France who really know the French tongue, Hugo, Gautier, and my¬ 
self.” Indeed the most inflated and abominable pages, as to style, 
that he ever produced—we refer to some of the fine writing in Le 
Lys dans la Vallde —came from the desire to prove himself the peer 
of Hugo in the handling of language.* It is a long way from the 
flattery of such imitation to enmity. Nevertheless, Balzac and 
Stendhal made Flaubert possible, and the revolution dates from 
Madame Bovary. 

Before, however, saying a further word about the successors of 
Flaubert, we would add that Balzac not only had no quarrel with 
the romantic school, but that he even belonged to it to an extent 
which he himself little suspected. He had undergone the same in¬ 
fluences with the others, and with them he began his course. For 
any one who may wish to study the development of Balzac, we 
would say that there is amusement as well as profit to be had from 
the perusal of his early bad works. They are so preposterously bad 

* Zola. Romanciers Nairnalistes, p. 47. 



that one doubts involuntarily whether the author be not playing a 
practical joke at the expense of the reader, especially as the animal 
spirits in them are evidently high, and their connection with any¬ 
thing like probability is so slight as to be imperceptible. Jean Louis , 
published in 1822, reads in places like an anticipative burlesque of 
Victor Hugo’s Notre Dame de Paris , while there are passages in La 
Derntire FJe, published in the following year, that might be taken 
for a travesty of the author’s later self—as, for instance, where he 
says, in describing an alchemist’s laboratory, that the walls, if scraped, 
would have yielded thirty quintals of soot! In reality he was doing 
the best he could (although he knew himself that his best was bad), 
driven by poverty and ambition; and the excesses of both sorts 
were fore-shadowings of something in the better work of after years, 
less the exuberant spirits and all suspicion of a joke. To give but 
a single example—if Jean Louis savors of romanticism, what shall 
one say of Vautrin ? Are his adventures a whit less incredible than 
anything in the Comte de Monte Cristo, or the Trois Mousquetaires ? 
It is only that we are imposed upon by Balzac’s matter-of-fact man¬ 
ner, and even that fails on occasion, as when Vautrin favors either 
Rastignac or Lucien de Rubempre with pages of cynical wisdom 
that are clearly of “ Balzacien ” manufacture. No, the entire story 
of Vautrin, whether in the Pcre Goriot, in the Illusions Perdues , or in 
the drama, is only saved by an occasional stroke of profound insight 
into human nature, a bit of keen observation, or the air of verisimili¬ 
tude obtained by the author’s mode of treatment, from being as 
arrant a fable as anything in Dumas or Hugo. This instance might 
be multiplied, if it were necessary, to prove that Balzac was of his 
time, and affected by the literary atmosphere he breathed. In the 
end we should only have to admire all the more the force that ena¬ 
bled him to get outside that atmosphere into a region where he may 
not have commanded as wide horizons as might be wished, but where 
at least he could see clearly. 

But if the great father of naturalism sometimes painted his cheeks, 
and draped himself in the theatrical stuffs of his more romantic 
brethren, there are many of his followers who have determined to be 
guilty of no such compromise. Their zeal for the truth as they 
found it first in Balzac, and yet more clearly enunciated in his pro¬ 
fessed disciple, Flaubert, has made them as great iconoclasts as were 
the romantic poets whose images they have striven to destroy. 
This is not the place to follow their quarrels, where we are treating 



of their predecessor—who had quarrels enough, but not of that sort. 
The school of naturalism has gone far, much too far, in its applica¬ 
tion of the principles that, it has fancied, are to be drawn from the 
work of the founder. Its conduct has alienated the affections 
even of those who from the beginning wished it well. And yet— 
it requires perhaps some courage to say it at the present moment 
•—we owe to it many an undoubted masterpiece. Those who are 
in the habit of putting to the account of the principles he pro¬ 
fesses, the worst things of Zola—or of others, whom we would not 
wish to mention here—should remember that they have received 
from the same source, also, his best, and that these are very good. 
They should remember, too, that the less direct influence of these 
principles has been beneficent, not only on the novel but on the 
drama, and that we may thank Balzac for much of the pleasure we 
have in listening to the plays of Augier, of Dumas Fils, of Sardou.* 

In taking leave of the Comddie Humaine, which we do with regret, 
we cannot but feel how inadequate is any attempt to represent the 
magnificent hurly-burly that it is. Its execution is variable, its crea¬ 
tures are of every degree of vitality. Figures of pure convention, 
like Vautrin, jostle against others that seem as much flesh and blood 
as ourselves; the most puerile interests are at work in the midst of 
the most terrible passions. Comedy, of which there is but little, is 
overshadowed by tragedy, of which there is a great deal. All classes, 
all walks of life are there, and their representatives come and go, 
crossing one another’s paths with love and hatred, with fidelity and 
with treason, and all are warmed with passion, the white heat of 
their creator. Wonderful man ! M. Taine has compared him both 
to Shakespeare, and to Rembrandt. Another critic has compared 
him to the tower of Babel. For us, he simply holds the keys of the 
world, finite as he is finite, but rich, and varied, and terrible. We 
may get a nightmare by remaining in it too long, and yet it affords a 
pleasant refuge from more personal cares, and plenty of acquaintances 
worth cultivating. 

John Safford Fiske. 

* This opinion is enunciated with the more confidence that it has the support of so 
able a critic as M. Faguet : Etudes Litt/raires sur le Dix-neuvilme Sihle. 




Any one who has read Mrs. Shelley’s remarkable story will 
understand why I compare Bulgaria to the monster she describes. 
Children have been known before now to turn against their parents: 
but Bulgaria was never thought of as a real living being which 
would grow up and have a will of its own; it was intended to be 
a sort of automaton, the wheels of which were to be kept in motion 
by its principal inventor, with the consent of the others who had 
assisted in the manufacture. 

We can see more clearly what is going on now in its life, if we 
take a cursory review of the events attending its birth. Without 
being exactly one of the midwives, I overheard some of the consul¬ 
tations, and knew what went on between the doctors. 

The first project for the formation of a separate Bulgaria was 
that presented to the Conference at Constantinople, after the indig¬ 
nation caused throughout Europe by the massacres of May. This 
proposed to make all or the greater part of the country inhabited by 
Bulgarians into a self-governing province, with a Christian governor. 
The rights of the Sultan were to be preserved, but the province was 
to pay a fixed tax, and was, in general, to be practically independent, 
much like one of our Territories. The plan of organization had been 
worked out on the spot with much care, and the result would have 
been the creation of a very contented and well-governed country, 
in no way dangerous to the peace of Europe. Lord Salisbury first 
divided this province into two by an arbitrary north and south line; 
and then the other English representative, Sir Henry Elliot, in his zeal 
for Turkey, persuaded the Porte to reject the proposed arrangement, 
and thus brought upon his dear friends a bloody, expensive, exhaus¬ 
ting, and, what was worse, utterly useless war, which resulted in the 
dismemberment of the empire. It is true that there were other com¬ 
pensations in the independence of Serbia and Rumania and the en¬ 
largement of Greece ; but, as far as the Bulgarians are concerned, they 
would have received from the plan of the Conference, without a war, 
as many real and practical advantages as they have since enjoyed. 



After the war it was, of course, impossible to revert to the ori¬ 
ginal plan. Every one felt that the Bulgarians had then a right to 
greater independence, and every one felt, too, that Russia, as the 
liberating power, had a right to direct the political destinies of the 
country. The Treaty of San Stefano, of March 3, 1878, therefore, 
not only gave to Bulgaria its greatest possible extent, making it 
include nearly every district that could by any possibility be claimed 
as Bulgarian, but formed it into a self-governing country, with its own 
army and its own laws, and with a prince of its own. It received 
everything, in fact, short of complete independence, for the Prince 
was to be a vassal of the Sultan, to whom the country was to pay a 
nominal tribute. The position thus created for the “Great Bul¬ 
garia,” as it is technically called, was almost precisely similar to that 
of Egypt under the Khedive, or of Rumania under Prince Charles. 

Turkey had signed and ratified the peace, and the Bulgarians 
felt that they could count upon their future; that, even though prac¬ 
tically governed from Russia, they would at all events have peace, 
law, and order; that prosperity and civilization would grow together. 
Unfortunately, in consequence of the threats of England, Russia 
felt obliged to submit the Treaty of San Stefano to revision by the 
great powers, a job which was completed in haste, as Bismarck, in 
his capacity of “the honest broker,” wished it soon over; and care 
was not always taken to study the hidden meaning of some of the 
innocent-looking clauses that were inserted to please Austria-Hun¬ 
gary. That Power, Great Britain, and France, all left the council- 
board much richer than they came; each gaining a province or 
two at the expense of Turkey. The only sufferers were the peo¬ 
ples of the Balkans, for whose benefit the war and the treaties 
had been made. The occupation of Bosnia and Hersegovina by 
Austria-Hungary was a blow to the development of a free and 
united Serbia; and this little country was, furthermore, thrown, 
financially and commercially, and, as it proved, politically also, into 
Austria’s hands, by means of the clauses relating to railways and 
commercial treaties. Rumania was restricted in her rights on the 
Danube ; nominally in the interest of the commerce of the world, 
but really for the benefit of Austria-Hungary. The Bulgarians fared 
still worse. The country was divided into three parts: one was 
allowed to remain an autonomous principality ; but its growth and 
development were hindered by the fact that the Province, where 
most of the wealth, prosperity, and intelligence were concentrated, 



was separated under the name of Eastern Rumelia and placed 
under the more direct rule of the Porte, in accordance with regula¬ 
tions, and under a governor sanctioned and approved by the Powers. 
The third part was given back to the arbitrary rule of the Sultan, 
though with the promise of administrative reforms, which were duly 
considered by commissions but were never carried out. 

Besides the mutilation and division of the country Bulgaria was 
forced to accept the unknown, and not easily ascertainable, engage¬ 
ments of the Sublime Porte toward the railway companies and 
Austria-Hungary. The railway from Rustchuk to Varna belonged 
to an English company ; but it had been leased to the Austrian 
company controlled by Baron Hirsch(in which various highly placed 
personages were interested), which was working the railways of 
European Turkey, and which in their construction, repair, and 
working had, with the active assistance of the Austrian Govern¬ 
ment, perpetrated one of the most colossal financial jobs of this 
century. Other provisions of the Berlin Treaty bound Bulgaria in 
certain respects to definite obligations toward Europe. The only 
stipulation absolutely in her favor was that which diminished the 
period during which she should be under Russian tutelage, from 
two years to nine months. That time was given her in which to 
set her governing machine in motion; after which she was to be 
left to herself, exempt from the legal interference even of Russia, 
although full play was allowed to the exertion of Russian influ¬ 
ence. This, however, was not intended in the interest of Bulgaria; 
but to guard the interests of England and Turkey, and to prevent 
Bulgaria from becoming to all intents and purposes a Russian pro¬ 
vince, and thereby ultimately causing new trouble in Europe. It will 
be seen, therefore, that the Bulgarians had no particular reason for 
being grateful to Europe, or to the powers which had signed the 
Treaty of Berlin. Their gratitude was rightfully due, and was freely 
given, to Russjp.; which Power, even admitting ulterior and selfish 
objects, had at the cost of great sacrifices obtained Bulgarian inde¬ 
pendence. At that time it was thought an easy matter for Russia 
not only to retain and strengthen the affections of the Bulgarian 
people, but to control and guide their destinies. That this expecta¬ 
tion was ultimately deceived, came, in part, from the natural desire 
of every people to govern themselves without arbitrary foreign inter¬ 
ference, but chiefly from the unwisdom of the Russian policy and 
the unskilfulness, folly, and over bearing conduct of her agents. 



The Russians had begun the work of organization on their first 
entry into Bulgaria, partly for their own convenience, and partly be¬ 
cause, for the interests of the country as well as for their own, it was 
necessary to show to Europe that a civil administration had been 
rapidly formed and was already in working order. The task was 
intrusted to Prince Tcherkassky, who had proved himself a capable 
administrator in Poland and at Moscow, and who was a far-seeing 
and able statesman. Unfortunately he died at San Stefano on the 
very day of the signature of the treaty. He was succeeded by 
Prince Dondukdf-Korsdkof, who had been for many years Governor- 
General of the Province of Kief—a difficult region to govern—and 
was highly considered for his tact and administrative qualities. 
There was, indeed, a great show of governing on the Russian pro¬ 
vincial plan; there was rebuilding of towns and making of roads; 
there were no end of institutions and commissions, many of them, 
however, only on paper ; and the country soon took on the air of 
a fairly flourishing outlying Russian province. Of all the results 
effected by the administration of Dondukdf-Korsdkof, little now re¬ 
mains except the extremely bad pavement of one street in Sofia, 
which has perhaps been preserved because it has been carefully 
avoided by travellers. Of the $3,000,000 or thereabouts which 
General Sdbolef says had been economized, not one cent was 
found when the government of Prince Alexander took possession of 
the treasury. When Prince Alexander complained a year later that 
the National Bank could not be made to work, so stupidly had its 
laws been drawn up, Dondukdf laughingly answered, “You must 
be very simple to have taken that institution seriously.” 

By the Treaty of Berlin an Assembly of Notables was to meet at 
Tirnova, draw up a constitution, and then elect a prince. The Rus¬ 
sians chose for their model the Constitution of Serbia, which they 
closely imitated, the main feature being that the Legislative Assem¬ 
bly was to be composed of half the bishops, half the.judges, and a 
number of elected delegates proportioned to the population (one to 
20,000), in addition to whom the Prince could appoint half as many 
more. The plan was, perhaps, not a bad one for a people untried in 
the practice of self-government on a large scale, though they had 
had experience of it in church and village matters ever since their 
conquest by the Turks ; but it had the disadvantage, as is still seen in 
Serbia, of nearly always allowing a minister to return a majority of 
his own supporters. 



When the Constituent Assembly met, it did not seem inclined to 
proceed to business, and came near adjourning as a protest against 
the decision of the Treaty of Berlin. It required a sharp telegram 
from the Emperor of Russia to get them started, and even then 
there was great dissatisfaction at the exclusion of the deputies sent 
from Eastern Rumelia and Macedonia. It cannot be said that at 
this time there were really any parties, in the proper sense of the 
term; nor can we even admit the distinction made by Prince Alex¬ 
ander’s chaplain, Herr Koch, into “ wild ” and “ tame.” The per¬ 
sons designated as “ tame ” were, for the most part, those who had 
received or completed their education in Russia or Western Europe, 
where they had unconsciously imbibed notions of government which 
were afterward called conservative. The remainder, and the great 
majority, were chiefly men of little education; but they were led by 
a number of young men who have since made their mark, who had 
received their education under American influences. They were, 
also, sometimes counselled by an American then at Tirnova, whose 
zeal frequently outran his discretion. With all this, an anti-Russian 
feeling began to show itself. The Russians had not treated the Bul¬ 
garians any too kindly during the war, nor had they been the mildest 
governors during the occupation. They had stigmatized the pea¬ 
sants as cowardly and unpatriotic because they had wished to be 
paid for the provisions and forage taken from them by the troops. 
The Bulgarians were willing to consider the Russians as their 
“ brothers,” but resented dictation, and were enchanted with the 
thought of governing themselves. Many did not see why they 
should merely exchange Turkish for Russian masters. With all this, 
it was soon seen that the constitution proposed by Russia had very 
little chance of being accepted, although it was recommended by 
the committee appointed for its examination, which was composed 
chiefly of moderate men but whose chairman had the misfortune to 
say that it was desirable that the constitution should be permeated 
by a spirit of judicious conservatism. The result was that the pro¬ 
ject was rejected by the Assembly, and a constitution passed of a 
far more liberal character, and which, it must be admitted, was 
somewhat too advanced for the country at that time. Dondukdf- 
Kors^kof had a moment of irritation at the failure of his plan; but 
in his heart he laughed at the whole farce—as he considered it—and 
accepted without difficulty the constitution as it had been passed. 

For prince there was only one serious candidature. There had 



been a slight movement in favor of Prince Dondukdf-Korsakof, and 
also of General Ignatieff; but the Tsar absolutely refused to allow a 
subject to mount the throne, and the treaty excluded members of 
the reigning houses of the great powers. On the second ballot, 
April 29, 1879, Prince Alexander of Battenberg was unanimously 
elected. He had been fixed upon by the Tsar early in the war, and 
as a preliminary experience had accompanied the Russian army dur¬ 
ing most of the campaign. He was the second son of Prince Alex¬ 
ander of Hesse, the favorite brother of the Empress of Russia, who 
had been for many years a general in the Austrian service, and while 
there had married, morganatically but legally, the daughter of a 
Polish nobleman, Count Haucke, at one time Austrian Minister of 
War. The Countess, on her marriage, had been created Princess of 
Battenberg, and the children took that title. While their aunt on 
the father’s side was Empress of Russia, one of their uncles on the 
mother’s side had been condemned to death for participation in a 
Polish revolution against Russia. Prince Alexander had been edu¬ 
cated in Germany, and was then a lieutenant of dragoons in the 
German service. 

The Prince was dining with the Russian ambassador at Berlin, 
on the birthday of the Tsar, when he received the telegram announc¬ 
ing his election. He hesitated somewhat before accepting, chiefly 
because he thought himself hampered by the constitution ; but went 
to Livadia in the Crimea to see his uncle, the Emperor Alexander 
II., who persuaded him to undertake the responsibility. He then 
made a tour of the great powers, winning over sovereigns and 
statesmen by the charm and grace of his person and bearing, and 
finally, on July 9, 1879, took the oath of office at Tirnova. 

The Prince was at first obliged to rely on the experience and 
counsels of M. Davydof, the Russian Consul-General, who gave him 
information as to the Bulgarians most likely to be of use to him in 
forming his government. Personal jealousies and feelings prevented 
a coalition of the two opposing factions; and he decided to form his 
first Cabinet entirely from the group which called themselves Con¬ 
servatives, but which was in a minority in the country, having been 
totally defeated on all the questions arising during the Constituent 
Assembly. Of this group, three men, Stoilof, Gr£kof, and Ndthcho- 
vitch, not only preserved their personal influence with the Prince 
until the end, but have greatly increased their weight in the coun¬ 
try since, owing to their natural prudence and increased experience. 



The two latter entered the Cabinet as ministers; Stoilof became 
the intimate adviser of the Prince as his Chief of Cabinet. These 
are the three known by the Russians as the camarilla, or the tri¬ 
umvirate, and hated as opposed to Russian designs and as being 
Bulgarian patriots; but who, in spite of occasional slips and errors, 
have acted chiefly with a view to their country’s good, and have 
been great factors in making Bulgaria what it is now. The Ministry 
of War was held by a Russian, General Parentzof, who was unfortu¬ 
nately too young, utterly unfit for the place, and of bad manners, as 
it proved; he immediately began to intrigue against the Prince, as 
being a German, in which he was aided by Colonel Shepelef, attached 
to the person of the Prince as Russian military agent and adviser. 

In the first Assembly, the Liberals greatly outnumbered the 
Conservatives, being 150 to 30. They immediately demanded a 
change of ministry, but the Prince refused and dissolved the Cham¬ 
ber. This was a great mistake, owing to inexperience in govern¬ 
ment—especially in constitutional government—and to a purely 
military education. Later he learned to see that his only way of 
governing was with the help of the party which represented the 
great majority of the voters ; and that other methods are only possible 
in a country like Prussia, where a Bismarck can govern in spite of an 
opposing Chamber ; or like the United States, where the positions of 
ministers do not depend on the votes of the representative body. 
The difficulties attending this course were so great that, when the 
Prince went to St. Petersburg at the beginning of 1880, to attend 
the twenty-fifth anniversary of the reign of the Emperor Alexander 
II., he asked for a change of the constitution. General Milietin, 
the Minister of War, replied that the constitution had not yet had a 
fair trial ; that it was too soon to think of changing it; and advised 
the Prince to try a Liberal Cabinet. The Emperor agreed with this 
and gave sound counsel, characteristic of the man : “ If you act with 
moderation and, if need be, with the energetic use of your legal 
powers, you will succeed in winning respect and love. The art 
of managing men is one that can be learned, and every day will 
give you greater skill.” It was not, however, until the new elec¬ 
tions showed a still greater Liberal majority that the Prince accepted 
a Liberal ministry, the leading members of which were Zankof and 

The Tsar, at the request of the Prince, had relieved him of 
the tutelage of his military adviser, Colonel Shepelef, and had re- 



placed the intriguing Minister of War by General Ernroth, a very 
worthy man, who devoted himself to the service of the Prince ; 
although, unfortunately, his ideas were not large, and, in spite of 
being a Finlander, he was a firm believer in absolutism. He carried 
out orders and engaged in no intrigues. Unfortunately M. Davydof, 
the most experienced, clear-headed, cautious, and honest agent that 
Russia has ever had at Sofia, was recalled at the same time, and 
in his place there was appointed, through the influence of a Russian 
financial ring, a M. Cumani, who had resigned his position as Counsel 
of the Embassy at Constantinople—the first place after the ambas¬ 
sador—to become agent for the Austrian Jew, Baron Hirsch, in his 
Turkish railway dealings. 

Meanwhile, even after such a short period of independent life, 
the Bulgarians had begun to suspect, to dislike, and even to be dis¬ 
gusted with the Russians. There were deep-seated as well as super¬ 
ficial reasons for this discontent. Among the latter were the arbi¬ 
trary and tyrannical acts of the Russian civil officials still remaining 
in the country ; the contempt with which they and the Russian offi¬ 
cers regarded the Bulgarians, and the manner in which they outraged 
the moral feelings of the latter. The Bulgarians are a virtuous and 
honest as well as thrifty race, and it went against the grain to see 
Russian officers, whom they had to pay out of their hard-gained earn¬ 
ings, spending it all for suppers and champagne, and cafSs-ckantants, 
and the entertainment of loose women. There were many good and 
honorable men among the Russian officers; there was a great sprink¬ 
ling of men who were being given their last chance before being 
finally disgraced; and there were some who were even too bad for 
Central Asia. Indeed, Bulgaria has always been treated by Russia 
as if it were situated somewhere near Khiva, and, whether from de¬ 
fective information—which can hardly be supposed—or from a mis¬ 
taken appreciation of it, the Russians have not seemed able to under¬ 
stand the Bulgarian character in its actual or possible development. 
They have persisted in treating the Bulgarians as beings far inferior 
to the uneducated Russian peasant, who certainly has many excel¬ 
lent qualities which Bulgarians do not possess. 

Among the more serious reasons for Bulgarian suspicions of 
Russia were the intrigues of all kinds carried on by nearly every 
Russian official. It must be said, in all justice, that in the East and 
in a country not thoroughly organized, where intriguing is so natural, 
so easy, and so very amusing, only men of strong character and cool 



judgment can refrain from it; but, unfortunately, very few of the 
Russian officials had this necessary coolness and balance. When 
there were not three, there were two Russians, the Consul-General 
and the Minister of War, who received their instructions from differ¬ 
ent sources, and then used their own judgment in carrying them out, 
as well as in working for quite different ends. The Bulgarians were 
sharp and wily enough to see the divergence of views between the 
Russian agents present at any one time; and between any one and 
his predecessor, for changes were frequent. They began to suspect 
that each was pursuing his own personal policy for selfish reasons. 
There was obviously one proper course for Russia to follow—and it 
was probably the course originally intended by the Government— 
i. e., to confine itself strictly within the role of the protecting and 
guiding power; making the army as serviceable as possible for an 
auxiliary in case of a war; guiding the foreign policy of the princi¬ 
pality ; abstaining from any interference, however slight, in the 
internal affairs of the country; and giving the young and inexperi¬ 
enced Prince a discreet and silent mentor, who would really have 
great influence while seeming to have none. This part Davydof 
played with some success; but, with the exception of General Ern- 
roth, all the leading Russian officials secretly intrigued either for or 
against the Prince, and generally openly sided with political fac¬ 
tions. The Bulgarians seeing this, often used them to further their 
own ends, and then laughed at them behind their backs. 

Most important of all in detaching Bulgaria from Russia were the 
acts and intrigues of the financial ring at Moscow and St. Peters¬ 
burg. The Bulgarians had made their money with difficulty, and 
looked carefully after the spending of it ; and the proposals for 
banks and railways and public works repeated, urged, and pressed, 
even with threats, by the various Russian agents, the easy talk 
about millions, about guarantees, and profits, raised suspicions that 
the chief object of the Russians was to exploit the country; that its 
importance to them was financial, rather than political or strategical. 
The phrase, “ But we have shed our blood for you,” had so often 
been repeated as to become a by-word ; and no Russian proposition 
—especially a financial one—could escape severe scrutiny. 

When I speak of the Russian financial ring, I do not mean that 
there exists an organized body of men for mutual assistance in finan¬ 
cial enterprises and for a division of profits. But in a country like 
Russia, where the middle classes are few in numbers, and where the 



mercantile classes have been till lately deficient in education, the 
fever for commercial and industrial undertakings, which has greatly 
spread in the last twenty years, has necessarily brought to the aid of 
speculators many of the official and noble classes. This has been to 
some extent the case in Berlin and Vienna also; but nowhere can be 
seen as many generals and high officials active or passive directors in 
banks, railways, or companies, and ardently engaged in speculation, 
as in St. Petersburg. This state of things has, therefore, brought 
about, wherever personal interests do not clash, a certain solidarity 
between the great capitalists and the high officials. Life in St. 
Petersburg is expensive, especially in these days; many people 
speculate, so many good chances coming to them through official 
sources ; still more invest their little savings, and therefore feel a 
kindly interest in all financial enterprises. The result is that any 
scheme which has the support of some high officials and great nobles 
will be sure to command the aid of all who may some day hope 
for favor or preferment. Among the financial grandees of Russia at 
the present moment are Baron Giinzburg, a Jewish banker ; Poliakdf, 
a Jew from Southern Russia; and Gubdnin, originally a Moscow 
merchant, and now the rival of Poliakdf in railways. There is 
scarcely an official in Russia who has invested or made money in 
enterprises, who has not been at some time placed under obligations 
to one of these three men, or to one of their like. When we know 
that men high in the Foreign Office have large investments, and even 
in a covert way speculate on the Bourse ; and when we find General 
Obrutchef, the Chief of the General Staff and practical head of the 
Russian army, accused of being a member of the ring, we can per¬ 
fectly understand that lesser officials who have no pecuniary inte¬ 
rest themselves, are very careful not to thwart the plans, or run 
counter to the possible interests, of their superiors. 

When Prince Alexander arrived for the first time at Varna, even 
before he had taken the oaths, he was asked to receive the repre¬ 
sentatives of Giinzburg and Poliakdf, who brought recommendations 
from many high Russian officials, among others a very warm one 
from the Imperial Chancery. The Prince, who wished to keep 
clear of all financial transactions, such as have been malevolently 
alleged against the kings of Rumania and Serbia, could only reply 
that, in view of the pressure brought to bear from Russia, he would 
represent the matter to his ministry as soon as constituted. What 
was wanted at this time was, first, a concession for a network of rail- 



ways to be built in Bulgaria, with the exclusive right of making the 
preliminary surveys, which would effectually prevent all competition 
as to terms ; second, the right to establish a national bank. The 
charter of the bank was so drawn as to allow it to take charge of 
the whole financial operations of the State, including the ordinary 
service of the treasury, all public loans, all public works, all savings 
and deposit banks, and even the coining of money and the issue 
of notes. It was to have, also, the privilege of lending money on 
mortgages and purchasing real estate, and of furnishing capital for 
commercial and industrial enterprises in the country. The regula¬ 
tions were so contrived as to secure to the original shareholders 
complete control over the whole capital in case of any subsequent 
issue of shares ; in other words, the whole commercial and financial 
interests of the country were to be placed in the hands of two Rus¬ 
sian Jews, MM. Giinzburg and Poliakdf. As I have said, the Bulgari¬ 
ans are keen about money matters; and the ministry, in spite of the 
pressure, demanded time for deliberation, and subsequently decided 
to present to the Chamber only the railway proposals. When the 
Chamber was dissolved and a new ministry formed, those minis¬ 
ters most hostile to the Russian financial projects were dismissed. 
Outin, the agent of the speculators, when the new ministry was 
announced from the gallery, exclaimed, “At last we have a ministry 
with which one can do business.” For this he was attacked in the 
newspapers, and, on his complaining to M. Davydof, Consul-General, 
was told that, if he did not wish to be written against, he should not 
mix himself up in the affairs of the country. From that moment 
the ring declared war against Davydof, who was soon removed. 

The new ministry showed the same reserve as the first minis¬ 
try had done toward the propositions of the Russian speculators; 
but, on the continued urging of M. Cumani, the Russian agent, and 
of the Prince (who wished to content Russia and had been led to 
believe that the railways were desired by the Tsar for strategic 
purposes), the Archbishop Clement consented to introduce into 
the next Assembly a bill establishing a national bank, but abso¬ 
lutely refused to sign the contract proposed. When the speculators 
saw they could get no further, they immediately turned round and 
warmly espoused the side of the opposition ; and it has been stated 
on good authority, and not contradicted, that, to provide for elec¬ 
toral expenses, they contributed $40,000 to the party of KaravMof 
and Zdnkof. This contribution, if it was really given, was entirely 



superfluous, as the Chamber in any case would have had a large Libe¬ 
ral majority. The Zdnkof Ministry now felt in its turn the press¬ 
ure of the Russian coterie ; the railway project was again brought 
up and persistently urged by Cumdni, who, calling attention to the 
fact that Bulgaria was bound by the Treaty of Berlin to complete its 
part of the railway link between Belgrade and Constantinople, repre¬ 
sented how important it was, both for Russia and Bulgaria, that a 
railway from Sofia to Rustchuk should be built first; so that, in case 
of disturbances in Macedonia, the Russian troops could arrive on the 
spot at least as soon as the Austrian. Zankof and the Assembly 
were still too sharp for the Russians, and were unwilling to commit 
themselves to an indeterminate concession where no plans, esti¬ 
mates, or preliminary surveys were presented; the ministry laid the 
project before the Chamber, which that body, however, accepted as 
its own, approving the principle of the railway and authorizing the 
Government to make the necessary surveys and bring in a bill on the 
subject in the next session, without saying a word about Messrs. Giinz- 
burg and Poliakdf. Although no positive advantage had yet been 
gained, it was a partial victory for the ring; the Bulgarian Assem¬ 
bly should not have accepted the project, even in this modified form. 
But as it was necessary to conceal their operations, the ring de¬ 
manded and obtained from Karavelof—for Zdnkof had been obliged 
to resign to please Austria on the Danube question—that M. Hogd6 
should be dismissed. This was a French financial official who had 
been sent out by the French Government at the request of the 
Prince, to organize the treasury department. He had scarcely yet 
entered on duty, and, therefore, in accordance with the terms of the 
contract, received $16,000 in compensation. It is pleasing to state 
that he immediately gave the half of this sum to the French school 
at Sofia. 

So many difficulties beset Prince Alexander that the assas¬ 
sination of the Emperor Alexander II., on March 13, 1881, gave 
him a very severe shock. He was not only influenced by the love 
and affection which he bore his uncle, and by the horrible man¬ 
ner of the latter’s death, but he felt that he had lost his chief 
supporter and protector, and feared that his position was greatly 
shaken. He therefore started the next day for St. Petersburg ; 
partly to attend the funeral, and partly to learn the sentiments of 
the new Emperor. A few days after his return, he astonished the 
country by issuing a proclamation, dated May 9, in which he de- 



dared his intention of abdicating unless the constitution were sus¬ 
pended and he were given dictatorial powers for seven years, and 
called a meeting of the Great Assembly to accept either his propo¬ 
sitions or his abdication. Responsibility for this step rested chiefly 
on the Prince himself, but he was pushed on by General Ernroth, 
his Russian Minister of War, and especially by Herr von Thielau, 
the German Consul-General. He was encouraged in this course, also, 
by various people in St. Petersburg to whom he had explained the 
difficulties of the situation ; and the members of the financial ring ap¬ 
proved of his ideas, thinking that with a man whom they considered 
weak, and who had hitherto more or less approved of their schemes, 
they would find no difficulty as soon as he should possess sole and 
arbitrary power. Officially the Russian Government knew nothing 
about it, and had given no consent. M. Hitrovo, the new Russian 
diplomatic agent (for Cumani had been recalled at the earnest re¬ 
quest of the Prince) was surprised by the news while lingering in 
Vienna. Russia, however, lost no time in accepting the fait accompli , 
and in supporting the Prince. The Emperor conferred on his cousin 
the red ribbon of St. Alexander Nevsky ; the Foreign Office sent an 
approving telegram, which was at once widely circulated, and in 
which it said: “ the Imperial Government wishes the Bulgarian 
people to maintain their indissoluble union with the Prince, and 
reject the enticements of ambitious agitators who seek to trouble 
this good understanding.” Hitrovo was ordered to accompany the 
Prince during his electoral campaign, and to lay stress on the wishes 
of the Tsar in his favor. The Ministry had, of course, been at once 
dismissed; General Ernroth was intrusted with almost dictatorial 
powers for the period of the elections; Russian officers took the 
government of every province, and the elections were, of course, a 
mere farce. In some places the Liberals were not allowed to come 
to the polls ; in others, where Liberal delegates were returned, the 
elections were annulled on the ground —mirabile dictu —of terrorism. 
It was hinted to the peasants that there would be freedom from tax¬ 
ation during the seven years. The result was that over three hun¬ 
dred delegates were returned in favor of the conp-d'etat , and only 
twenty-five against it. The Great Assembly met at Sfstova on July 
13th, and, as the small minority thought it useless to attend at the 
risk of their lives, it was able to organize, to vote unanimously the 
Prince’s propositions, to listen to the reading of the manifesto, and 
to be dissolved, within the short space of twenty minutes. 



The same day M. Hitrovo announced to the Prince the speedy 
arrival of General Struve'with pressing letters of introduction, espe¬ 
cially from General Obrutchef, Chief of the General Staff, to ask 
in the name of the Russian Government the concession of the Sofia- 
Rustchuk Railway. General Ernroth immediately resigned ; partly 
because he found it impossible to work together with M. Hitrovo, 
and was disinclined to be mixed up with the financial schemes which 
the latter patronized. The same day, too, a new ministry was 
formed, composed of two Russian officers, a Wallachian resident in 
Russia, a Bohemian, and only two Bulgarians. 

At the first council of ministers held under the presidency of the 
Prince there were present the two Bulgarians, the Bohemian, and 
Lieutenant-Colonel Romlingen, who had been made Minister of the 
Interior and of Public Works, with, also, M. Hitrovo, General Struve, 
and Kopftkin, a young and inexperienced Russian engineer, who had 
been introduced as Director of Public Works. The only subject of 
discussion was the railway from Sofia to Rustchuk, and it turned out 
that although Struve professed to represent the Russian Govern¬ 
ment, he was in reality agent of Giinzburg and Poliakdf. He de¬ 
manded the immediate concession of the railway, on the ground of 
the decision of the previous Chamber; but finally contented himself 
with a request for the exclusive right of surveying the proposed 
line. The Prince had fortunately shielded himself by his very first 
proclamation, in which he had left the decision of all financial 
matters to the Chamber. It was even more annoying to find that 
the presence in the council chamber of the Russian diplomatic 
agent did not render the Bulgarian ministers more supple. These 
consented, not to give Struve exclusive permission to survey the 
line, but to empower him to make surveys as the agent of the 
Bulgarian Government. Nevertheless, Romlingen, in spite of the 
decision of the Council, wrote a letter to Struve, granting him the 
exclusive right of making surveys and proposals. For this and for 
other arbitrary conduct—not only in relation to the railways, but 
by his too frequent use of the whip and the knout as aid, to his 
administration—the Prince removed the latter from office. But 
such delicate treatment was required in the case of Russians that it 
was necessary for this purpose to ask the authorization of the Tsar, 
who telegraphed back, “ I permit you to make a last trial with a 
Bulgarian minister.” 

When it was found that, after all the difficulties placed in the 



way, the convention for completing the railway from Belgrade to 
Constantinople had been signed, and that Bulgaria would be obliged 
to construct its portion at once, Hitrovo renewed his instances 
with the Prince for the concession of the Sofia-Rustchuk line, talked 
much about its strategic necessity to Russia, and laid great stress 
upon its being the personal wish of the Emperor Alexander III., 
finally accusing the Prince of wilfully playing into the hands of 
Austria. The ministers at last agreed to the project on two con¬ 
ditions : that it should be proved to them by an official document, 
and not by mere letters of recommendation, that Russia really de¬ 
sired the railway ; and second, that the Russian Government should 
either advance money or guarantee a loan for its construction. 
With this Hitrovo went to St. Petersburg: but, in spite of all his 
influence, the ring was not so powerful in high Government circles 
as had been supposed ; opinions were divided as to the advantage 
and utility of the railway; and, although the question was discussed 
in the council of ministers, it was unanimously decided to refuse 
any financial responsibility. It was added, however, that, if the Bul¬ 
garians chose to build the railway, the Russian Government would 
not be displeased, and would even be glad to help them by introduc¬ 
tions to some banking-houses. 

It may seem as if too much stress were laid on these financial 
intrigues ; but they had their importance in alienating Bulgarian 
feeling from Russia. Bulgarians could not well see why gratitude 
toward the country which had liberated them should compel them 
to enrich a lot of speculators who, as they at first suspected and 
afterward knew, in no way represented the Russian Government or 
the Russian people. The accusations that Hitrovo had a pecuniary 
interest in the matter seemed to them well-founded, as they knew of 
his financial embarrassments, and had heard of the equivocal reputa¬ 
tion and debts that he had left wherever he had been. 

So far the full powers granted to the Prince had not produced 
much effect on the government of the country. There was con¬ 
tinued protest and agitation, which greatly increased now that 
Hitrovo turned against the Prince and openly allied himself with 
the radicals. In order to undermine the authority of the Prince he 
fomented intrigues which were against the interests of the country, 
such as the sending of an armed band into Bosnia, and attempted 
to disturb the allegiance of the Russian officers serving in the Bul¬ 
garian army. With the connivance of General Krylof, Minister of 



War, an order of the day was issued to the Russian officers inform¬ 
ing them that, as Russian subjects, they must obey the orders 
of the Russian agency, which represented the Emperor, in prefer¬ 
ence to orders emanating from the Prince. Fortunately this order 
did not have the effect that was expected. Just about this time 
there were other difficulties in the army. It was reported that 
serious peculations had occurred in the Shumla cavalry regiment; 
and, on a personal inspection, the Prince satisfied himself that the 
equipment and material were in very bad condition. Soon after 
loud complaints were made by the peasantry that parties of this 
regiment, commanded by non-commissioned officers, rode about the 
country at night and robbed them of hay and oats. These non¬ 
commissioned officers, on being called to account, admitted the 
charge, and stated that they had acted under the orders of their cap¬ 
tains. The captains, in turn, threw the blame on the colonel, who 
had charge of the military chest, and who for a long time had given 
out no money. In order to preserve the honor of the Russian 
officers as a body, the Prince felt compelled to dismiss from the ser¬ 
vice all the regimental officers, both Bulgarians and Russians. This 
was afterward brought up against him, for the Russian war de¬ 
partment could not forgive such want of consideration for the Rus¬ 
sian officers. The Prince also insisted on the dismissal of the chief 
of the engineering department, who had made too free with the 
funds intrusted to him ; but to this Hitrovo and Krylof opposed 
strong objections, and while the Prince insisted, Popof, the assistant 
of the Minister of War, began an agitation among the officers, where¬ 
upon he was dismissed. A farewell dinner was given to Popof, in 
which Hitrovo and several of the higher Russian officers took part, 
as a demonstration against the Prince. The latter then ordered 
General Krylof to forbid officers taking part in any demonstration 
without his consent. The general hesitated and was ordered to 
resign. General Lesovdy was appointed Minister of War ad inte¬ 
rim , despite the protest of Hitrovo that the position could only be 
filled by the Russian Government. 

This was too much for the Prince, who, after taking the advice of 
the leading Bulgarians, went to St. Petersburg, represented the state 
of affairs to the Emperor, asked for the recall of Hitrovo—which 
was granted—for strict orders that the Russian diplomatic agency 
should not meddle in internal affairs, and for a new Russian War 
Minister, being persuaded to accept a Russian also as Minister of 




the Interior, in order to counterbalance the Bohemian, Jiretchek. 
He further asked the Emperor for an order to the Russian officers 
in the Bulgarian service, that any offence against the Prince should 
be considered and treated as an offence against the Emperor him¬ 
self. This order, which was written out by the Prince in the 
Emperor’s presence, was subsequently withdrawn and disowned, 
and Lesovoy was recalled for having read it to the officers. It was 
decided that the diplomatic agency should for the present remain 
in the hands of the secretary, Ars^nief, who would thus be in an 
inferior position. The choice for Minister of War fell upon Major- 
General Alexander Kaulbars, and, at his request, Major-General 
Sdbolef, with whose family he had intimate relations, accompanied 
him as Minister of the Interior. 

Here begins a new period in Bulgarian affairs. The story of the 
griefs of the Bulgarians is not yet complete ; but it is necessary now to 
explain how the feeling in Russia gradually rose against Prince Alex¬ 
ander—“ the Battenberger,” as the newspapers sarcastically began to 
call him ; why suspicions of his fair dealing took such deep root in 
the mind of the Emperor; why, after the abduction and abdica¬ 
tion of Alexander, the same feelings and suspicions have beset the 
ruling party in Bulgaria; and how, at last, the state of things has 
become so changed that there can be no more return to the old, but 
that, in any international arrangement which may be made for the 
principality, the will of Bulgaria must be first consulted. This must 
be the subject of another article. 

Eugene Schuyler. 

( i Conclusion in the next number.) 


As the French social instinct culminates in the French religion 
of patriotism, French individual vanity becomes conceit whenever 
the Frenchman contemplates France or the foreigner. The egotism 
which he personally lacks is conspicuously characteristic of himself 
and his fellows considered as a nation. Nationally considered, the 
people composed of the most cosmopolitan and conformable indi¬ 
viduals in the w r orld distinctly displays the provincial spirit. Other 
peoples have their doubts, their misgivings. They take refuge in 
vagueness, in emotional exaggeration, in commonplaces, in pure brag. 
We have ourselves a certain invincibility of expectation that trans¬ 
figures our present and reconciles us to our lack of a past. Or, 
when we are confronted with evidence of specific inferiority, we 
adduce counterbalancing considerations, of which it need not be 
said we enjoy a greater abundance even than most of us are pre¬ 
pared on the instant to recall—“ comfort and oysters ” were all a 
certain compatriot could think of in one emergency, according to a 
recent anecdote. But France is to the mind, rather than to the 
feeling, of every Frenchman, as distinctly la grande nation to-day as 
she was in the reign of le grand monarque , when she had fewer rivals. 
The rise of these has made little impression on her. M. Victor 
Duruy begins his history by citing from “ some great foreign poet,” 
of whose name he is characteristically ignorant, the statement that 
France is “ the Soldier of God.” Every Frenchman echoes the 
words of Stendhal, who, nevertheless, in general strikingly illustrates 
what Mr. Spencer calls the “ bias of anti-patriotism ”: “ We, the 
greatest people that has ever existed—yes, even after 1815 !” The 
“mission” of France is in every Frenchman’s mind. Her many 
Cassandras spring from the universal consciousness of it, and are, 
besides, more articulate than convinced. Antiquity itself, to which 
it is a tendency of much modern culture to revert for many of its 
ideals, seems in a way rudimentary to the French, who, even during 
the First Empire, deemed themselves engaged in developing, rather 
than copying, classic models, from administration to attire. More 
than any other people with whom comparison could fitly be made, 



they seem ignorant of what is thought and done outside the bor¬ 
ders of their own territory. It is probable that not only the Ger¬ 
mans, a large class of whom know everything and whose rapacity of 
acquisition nothing escapes, and the English and ourselves, who are 
great travellers, but persons of almost any nationality to be encoun¬ 
tered anywhere abroad, are far more familiar with French books, 
French history, French topography, French ways, than the average 
intelligent Frenchman is with those of any country but his own. 

The French travel less than any other people. Less than any 
people do they savor what is distinctly national abroad. Not only 
do they emigrate less; France is so agreeable to Frenchmen, and to 
Frenchmen of every station, that it is small wonder they are such 
pilgrims and strangers abroad, and tarry there so short a time unless 
necessity compels them. But, as one travels to become civilized, 
and as in French eyes civilization reaches perfection only in France, 
the chief motive for travel is lacking to them. “We need to study, 
not to travel. A travelled Frenchman is no more civilized than his 
stay-at-home compatriots—which is not the case elsewhere. Besides, 
nowadays, you know, we have photographs ”— na'ivetd like this it is 
not uncommon to hear in Paris. The Temps , probably on the whole 
the best journal in the world, never has occasion to refer to the 
United States without falling into some gross error of fact, such as 
its American analogue would be incapable of making in regard to 
France, though the latter shows considerably less sympathetic dis¬ 
position to appreciate French currents of feeling and thought than 
the Temps does in the converse case. Every American traveller has 
encountered the Frenchman who believed that the Civil War was a 
contest between North and South America, and has been astonished 
by his general intelligence, which is wholly superior to that of our 
people of an analogous ignorance. The entire French attitude 
toward foreigners strikes us as curiously conscious and sensitive. In 
Paris, certainly, the foreigner, hospitably as he is invariably treated, 
is invariably treated as the foreigner that he is. His observations 
about French politics, manners, art, are received with what slight 
impatience civility permits; and often, indeed, they are of an ex¬ 
asperating absurdity. He is made to perceive that all these things 
are distinctly matters of French concern. The Frenchman feels 
too acutely the privilege of being a Frenchman to extend the favor, 
even by courtesy, to the stranger within his gates. He has laws 
which authorize him to expel from French territory foreigners who 



displease him. When the little American daily, the Morning News , 
treated the Parisians to some American “ journalistic enterprise ” 
about the healthfulness of Nice, some years ago, there was an 
amusing outcry for its immediate exile as a foreign publication. 
When the late King Alfonso passed through Paris after accepting 
in Germany a colonelcy of Uhlans, President Gr6vy was obliged to 
apologize for the conduct of the Paris mob, which hissed and hooted 
him as if there were no such thing as French civility, which, never¬ 
theless, is proof against everything but Chauvinism. Accurately 
estimated as Wagner is by the leading French musicians, and avid 
as are the Parisians of whatever is new in art, Paris is so dis¬ 
tinctly an entity and as such takes itself so seriously, that it would 
not listen to “ Lohengrin ” because the author of “ Lohengrin ” 
had, nearly twenty years before, insulted it after a manner which, 
one would say, Paris would be glad to condone as natural to Ger¬ 
man grossiertd, and therefore as unworthy of remembrance. The 
artists of the Salon lose a similar opportunity of showing themselves 
superior to provincialism of a particularly crass kind, in visiting the 
aesthetic primitiveness of our Congressmen on the individual Ameri¬ 
can painter, who is already only too impotently ashamed of it. 

The provincial spirit born of an exaggerated sense of nationality 
has nowhere else proved so fatal to France, perhaps, as in closing 
her perceptions to one of the very greatest forces of the century. 
The modern spirit is illustrated in many ways more signally and 
splendidly by the French than by any other people, but they have 
notably missed its industrial side. Industrialism may almost be 
said to play the chief part in the modern world, to be one of those 
influences which contribute the most to national grandeur and indi¬ 
vidual importance. Beside its triumphs, those of the military spirit 
are surely beginning to seem fleeting and ineffective. Standing 
armies were never so colossal and never cost so much, but, despite 
the fact that no one can foresee the manner of their decline, it is al¬ 
ready plain that the system which they support must ally itself with 
industrialism, or perish before it; which is only an extended way of 
putting Napoleon’s remark that “ an army travels on its belly.” 
Democracy may have as much use for force as feudalism had, but it 
is only the more clear for this that the heaviest battalions are to be 
on the side of the particular democracy which best apprehends and 
applies the principles of peaceful industry in their widest scope and 
exactest precision. If there be anything in these inconsistent with 



eminence in literature, art, natural science, diplomacy, philosophy, 
with the ideal, in short, so much the worse for the ideal. It is the 
fittest , not the best, that survives. But it is far more probable that 
what is generally called materialism is often only so called because 
the science of it has not yet been discovered. The future will cer¬ 
tainly account nationality a puissant and beneficent force just in 
proportion as the nationality of the future imbues itself with the 
spirit of industrialism, which at the present time appears, superfi¬ 
cially at least, so unnational, so cosmopolitan. Witness already not 
only the wealth of Anglo-Saxondom, but the way in which this 
wealth serves to promulgate the Anglo-Saxon ideals, imperfect as 
these are. Now, at a time when the foundations of modern soci¬ 
ety were being laid, France was neglecting the practice, if not the 
philosophy, of industrialism. Only in a philosophical and specu¬ 
lative way—and, indeed, one may add, an amateur way—did she 
concern herself with it. She was wholly given over to the things of 
the mind, of the heart, of the soul, examining the sanctions of every 
creed, every conception, every virtue even, and so preoccupied with 
encyclopaedism that she forgot colonization entirely. She threw 
away Canada, which she had administered with a sagacity wholly 
surpassing that of the English administration of the then loyal 
America. She allowed herself to be driven from India. She made 
only a desultory effort to develop her possessions in South America. 
While Turgot was studying his reforms, writing political economy, 
discovering that needless wages were in reality but alms, meditating 
and administering with a brilliance and power that place him at the 
very head of French statesmanship, the English Turgot was plunder¬ 
ing India. While the French were pondering and discussing the 
Contrat Social , the English were putting money in their purse, with 
which to fight the Napoleonic wars and restore the ancient regime 
at the Congress of Vienna. By force of intelligence, of impatience 
with sophisms, of passion for pure reason, by detestation of privilege 
and love for humanity, feudality in France was being undermined; 
while by force of energy, of strenuous, steadfast, and heroic deter¬ 
mination, Hastings was enabling England, by condoning infamy, to 
substitute wealth for institutional reform. 

The result is very visible at the present day, and complicates the 
French outlook not a little. French credit is still high, but French 
finances give the wisest French economists melancholy forebodings. 
French commerce and manufactures are very considerable, but, unlike 



her agriculture, they are so in spite of, rather than because of, French 
institutions. The settlement of the land question followed naturally 
upon the adoption of the Rights of Man, whereas the Revolution 
left the questions of trade and finance untouched in their provincial 
seventeenth-century status. Immigration and geographical situation 
go far to atone for the un-American stupidity of our tariff, but the 
same provincial spirit works much greater provincial results in France, 
where no good luck in the industrial field counterbalances the effects 
of subsidies and protection. The nation is at once the most indus¬ 
trious and the least industrial of the great nations. Notable excep¬ 
tions there are; but not only do these thrive at the expense of 
the mass, but, these included, the business of the nation seems, by 
comparison with that of England and ourselves, exaggeratedly retail, 
where indeed traces of its activity are not altogether lacking. An 
Englishman notes at once the tremendous depleting cost of consum¬ 
ing only native manufactures. An American remarks a surprising 
absence of business of all kinds, except in the luxuries and decora¬ 
tions of life. The smallness of the scale, the universal two prices 
for everything, the restriction of speculation to a small army of 
professed speculators, the way in which the trade in articles de 
Paris and nouveantts dominates in importance that in grain, cotton, 
groceries, and provisions, the outnumbering of drays and trucks 
by handcarts and cabs, the immense preponderance of little shops 
over what we are really etymological in calling “ stores ”—these 
things seem provincial not to our Philistinism so much as to our 

It is very well to be at the head of civilization, to represent most 
perfectly of all nations “the humanization of man in society,” but 
you must manage to live, to endure; and to endure you must take 
note of the forces at work around you, you must see the way the 
world is going. You must not at the present day be so exclusively 
devoted to Geist , however justifiably Mr. Arnold may sing its praises 
to his own countrymen, as to let your commercial instincts atrophy. 
Such costly fiascos as the Tonquin expedition are the price paid by 
France for that uncommercial character betrayed in the use of the 
term “ article d'export ” for whatever is cheap and poor. At a time 
when every European nation is colonizing in search of markets, suc¬ 
cess is not to be won by exporting brummagem. Curiously enough, 
even in the domain of art, where the French are, one would say, 
thoroughly commercial (as well as, of course, admirable executants), 



a critic in L'Art rebukes the provincial French disregard of foreign 
art, by begging his countrymen to be, at least, lenient enough to 
examine before disapproving, and asking them how they would like 
to be judged solely on the art products they themselves send abroad. 
The French belief that foreigners can be made to buy an article in 
art or industry that Frenchmen would reject is, indeed, directly as¬ 
sociated with their conviction that in all activities you can only be 
amusing to them, never instructive; and that while they welcome the 
strangeness which other peoples resent, there is no more utility in 
exchanging ideas than dry goods with you. And not only do they 
lose in national consideration in this way, but, to note a by no 
means unimportant detail, they miss the development of character 
that a national genius for industrialism in its large aspects stimulates 
in individual citizens. The amassing of money makes misers of 
Frenchmen. There is no amassing on a large scale that is not known 
and described as avarice. There are no Vanderbilts. Their laws 
securing the distribution of wealth stimulate sordidness instead of 
speculation. For speculation the mass of the people substitute the 
lottery, which is certainly a provincial form of business risk. Hold¬ 
ers of successful tickets almost never dissipate their winnings, but 
employ them sensibly and economically. Petty gambling is nearly 
universal, but its scale is usually parochial. The gambling at the 
Paris Bourse is, of course, colossal in amount, but in its area of 
influence it is restricted. There are comparatively few “ lambs 
shorn ” there, and the temptation to take a “ flyer ” in the market 
does not assail the average citizen. 

Moreover, the necessity for an immense army keeps the military 
spirit in fashion. Every citizen passes through the caserne , and re¬ 
tains something of its feeling. Duels, fine uniforms, contempt of 
civilians, patronage of “ trades-people,” survive from the middle-age 
predominance of the noblesse , through this necessity, with a persist¬ 
ence that strikes our industrialized sense as puerile. Democratic as 
France is, she is still as feudal, as provincial in these respects, as oli¬ 
garchical or despotic societies are in others. Material as the com¬ 
munity is in many ways, in these it is still steeped in the antiquated 
ideal of that age of chivalry whose very existence we have arrived at 
doubting. The truculence of Richelieu’s time has been softened, 
but a statesman is still at the mercy of a spadassin, if the latter con¬ 
ceives his “honor” wounded in the course of parliamentary pole¬ 
mics. The sentiment which sustains the soldier against the avocat is 



wide-spread, and does not differ greatly, except in refinement, from 
the similar provincialism of our Southern fire-eaters. 

French provincialism, however, is exhibited rather in a restricted 
field of knowledge than in a narrow attitude of mind. It proceeds 
from ignorance rather than prejudice. Unlike the provincialism of 
any other people, it is thoroughly open-minded. It is traditional 
rather than perverse. It is not arrogant but limited—not so much 
sceptical of foreign merit as conscious of its own. Its development 
has taken place amid competitive, rather than isolated, conditions, 
and it shows the mark of the continental struggle instead of insular 
evolution; its conceit is derived from a too exclusive contemplation 
of French accomplishments, not from that vague and sentimental ex¬ 
aggeration with which unchecked emotion accentuates self-respect. 
Its view of the universe is conspicuously incomplete, but so far as it 
goes its vision is admirably undistorted. In a word, even French 
provincialism is remarkably candid and rational. It seems for this 
reason particularly crass to us, because its exhibition is marked by 
so much sense and so little sentiment, because a lack of emotional 
delicacy leads to bald and, so to speak, scientific, statement of French 
merits and attainments. We could sympathize much more readily 
with pure brag. The absence of buncombe is distinctly disagreea¬ 
ble to us. The palpable sincerity of its air of placid exactitude we 
find difficult to support. We could forgive it anything more readily 
than its frank composure. The story of the London cockney who 
found the French a singular people because they called “ bread ” 
pain , and replied to a comrade, who observed that calling pain 
“bread” was just as singular, “Oh, well, you know it is bread,” 
illustrates rather the French than the Anglo-Saxon order of provin¬ 
cialism. The Englishman would be preoccupied with the contempt¬ 
ible character of the bread itself. The reason why the Germans are 
such good linguists, says the French Calino, is because “ they already 
know one foreign language.” His English correlative esteems foreign 
languages “ lingo.” A young and observant Methodist clergyman 
whom I once saw in Rome (whither he had been sent by his Con¬ 
necticut congregation in search of health and recreation) was evi¬ 
dently getting none of either because, in the presence of Raphael and 
Michael Angelo, he was perpetually and painfully reminding himself, 
as well as others, that “ a fine action is finer than a fine picture,” and 
that the Italians were so contemptible a people as to make it natural 
to infer from their distinction in them something particularly debas- 



ing in the influence of the fine arts. It would be hard to find a 
French priest in our day thus perplexed and tormented by the fasci¬ 
nation of pure oppugnation, and well-nigh impossible to encounter a 
Frenchman of any kind so persuaded that to differ morally from him¬ 
self was ipso facto witness of degradation. The travelling Frenchman 
rarely exhibits this pedantic order of contempt for the foreign phe¬ 
nomena with which he comes in contact. He often misconceives and 
misinterprets them most absurdly, and the serenity of his superiority 
on such occasions has, first and last, afforded a good deal of amuse¬ 
ment. The newspaper letters of the French correspondents are 
sometimes as good reading on account of the picturesqueness of their 
blunders as for any other reason. The conceit is colossal. But it 
arises from ignorance and misconception, from a certain helplessness 
in the presence of what is unfamiliar that fairly paralyzes even Gallic 
curiosity, and throws the victim back on his own nation’s eminence, 
with whose justification he is much more at home. It is never com¬ 
bined with feeling, and generally contents itself with such compari¬ 
sons as observation suggests. Our pedants, on the other hand, are 
constantly occupied with inferences of the most fundamental nature 
drawn from the most trivial circumstances. In the case of the travel¬ 
ling Briton, the view of novel objects seems actually to distil dislike. 
Encountering abroad, for example, a strange costume, the French¬ 
man finds it in bad taste, the Englishman conceives a contempt for 
the wearer. Both positions are equally unwarrantable, very likely, 
but it is clear that the provincialism of the latter only is pedantic. 
We are all familiar with the budget of opinions about foreigners with 
which our kindest and gentlest travellers return from Europe : the filth 
of Italy, the stupidity of the Germans, the insincerity of the French, 
the ridiculousness of the English, the atrocity of the Spanish cuisine, 
their ultra-radical conviction of American superiority in all these in¬ 
stances being based on the simple fact of difference. No French tra¬ 
veller looks at foreign phenomena in this way, and though his convic¬ 
tion of French superiority may be as unsound at bottom, yet, so far as 
he is concerned, it is more intelligent, less exclusively sentimental, 
as well as less uncharitable—one is tempted to add, less unchristian. 

An explanation is that the French provincial spirit, like other 
French traits, is thoroughly impersonal. The individual, everywhere 
subordinated to the State and the community, appears himself curi¬ 
ously unrelated to the very object of his characteristic adoration. 
Personally speaking, his provincialism is impartial. He does not ad- 



mire France because she is his country. His complacence with him¬ 
self proceeds from the circumstance that he is a Frenchman ; which 
is distinctly what he is first, being a man afterward. And his pride 
in France by no means proceeds from her production of such men 
as he and his fellows, but from what France, composed of his fel¬ 
lows and himself, accomplishes and represents. One never hears the 
Frenchman boast of the character and quality of his compatriots, as 
Englishmen and ourselves do. He is thinking about France, about 
her different gloires , about her position at the head of civilization. 
His country is to him an entity, a concrete and organic force, with 
whose work in the world he is extremely proud to be natively asso¬ 
ciated, without at the same time being very acutely conscious of 
contributing thereto or sharing the responsibility therefor. He is, 
accordingly, a marvel of candor in discussions relating to France, of 
which in detail he is an unsparing and acute critic. One wonders 
often at his admissions, which seem drastic, not to say fundamental. 
We forget that he always has France in reserve—that organic con¬ 
ception which every Frenchman holds so firmly, owing to the close¬ 
ness of texture in the national life since the nation’s birth. In dis¬ 
cussions of this kind his attitude is very well expressed by a fine 
mot of the Due d’Aumale, who, during the Bazaine trial, when the 
inculpated marshal exclaimed, in justification of his treason, that 
there was no longer any government left, any order, any authority to 
obey, said, “// y avait encore la France, monsieur ! ” The national 
life of England has been nearly as long and no doubt as glorious 
as that of France; but, owing to its looseness of texture, to the in¬ 
complete way in which it has absorbed the individual, the indi¬ 
vidual himself seems to make its dignity and eminence subjects of 
constant concern. And so much personal emotion is in his case 
associated with this preoccupation, that nowhere more conspicu¬ 
ously than in his Chauvinism does he illustrate the disposition of 
Doctor Johnson, “who,” says Emerson, “a doctor in the schools, 
would jump out of his syllogism the instant his major proposition 
was in danger, to save that at all hazards.” Similarly with ourselves. 
In national criticism the Frenchman, on the other hand, never thinks 
his major proposition in the least danger. This perhaps argues an 
intenser national conceit, a more explicit provincialism, but it per¬ 
mits a certain syllogistic freedom which an Anglo-Saxon can only 
envy. Mr. Arnold notes this characteristic as common to the conti¬ 
nentals generally in his inimitable essay entitled “ My Countrymen.” 



“ It makes me blush,” he says, “to think how I winced under what 
the foreigners said of England ; how I longed to be able to answer 
it; how I rejoiced at hearing from the English press that there was 
nothing at all in it, when I see the noble frankness with which these 
foreigners judge themselves.” But I think this frankness is especially 
characteristic of the French, and it is, from our point of view, not a 
little singular that it should be accompanied by the most intense 
Chauvinism. “ Modesty is doubt,” says Balzac, and the French thus 
judge themselves so frankly, very likely, because they are lacking in 
that modesty which the screaming of our eagle and the roar of the 
British lion attest as an Anglo-Saxon trait. At all events, the 
French, with their excessively rational way of looking at things, 
esteem modesty a defect rather than a quality, both in nations and 
individuals, and rarely use the word except in the enumeration of 
feminine charms, or in the extended sense of “ unpretentiousness ” 
—as, for example, a modest savant. 

And it is to be remarked that the French have a particular justi¬ 
fication for their ignorance of foreign national worth and accomplish¬ 
ment which people of other countries are without. On principles 
which they comprehend, that is to say, such principles as State action, 
organic development, scientific study of special problems, coopera¬ 
tion, and centralization—every principle, in fact, in accordance with 
which the common activities of an entire nation are to be directed— 
France presents as a nation a far more definite and concrete figure 
than any other. Englishmen, Italians, Americans may excel in a 
hundred ways, but they are not excellences to which England, Italy, 
America concretely contribute as nations. In the way of direct na¬ 
tional accomplishment, the work of France is certainly more palpa¬ 
ble than that of other nations. We build, for example, an astonish¬ 
ing number of miles of railway every year, but what we mean by 
“ America ” is no more associated with it than it is with the levying 
of a 30^ duty on foreign art. M. de Lesseps’ success or failure is, 
on the other hand, intimately and directly French. It is by no means 
altogether because French national accomplishment is almost always 
a government affair, whereas we make “ private enterprise” the great 
protagonist of our national drama. It is because in France the Gov¬ 
ernment is in all matters of this kind so thoroughly representative, so 
wholly a popular agent. The result is that “ France ” is far more 
real to a Frenchman’s intelligence than “America” is to ours, how¬ 
ever much our subjective sentiment may atone for the lack of na- 



tional palpability. Of “ private enterprise,” of the attainment of 
magnificent results through pure sentiment, through a loose social 
organization, through a consistent inconsistency, the Frenchman has 
no notion. These are principles of which he does not comprehend the 
workings. But, as I say, the results of those principles whose work¬ 
ings he does comprehend are far more considerable in France than 
elsewhere. In the line of social and political problems whose solution 
depends upon the conscious and precise regulation, ordering, and de¬ 
velopment of an entire society, French experimentation has, in vari¬ 
ety, scope, and thorough-going audacity, been so far in excess of that 
of other modern peoples that it seems to him idle to examine the 
history of the latter. Since the Revolution and the adoption of the 
Code Napoleon, for instance, the phenomena marking the gradual rise 
of the English democracy naturally seem to him interesting mainly 
from a humanitarian point of view, and only indirectly instructive. 
And as for studying the details of our social system, to take ano¬ 
ther popular example, whereby American relations between men and 
women are secured, he necessarily feels that this would be rather 
curious than profitable to him, because of his conviction that these 
relations, if they are what our admirers maintain, are owing more to 
the favor of Heaven than to that human ordering upon which his 
own society must inevitably and exclusively continue to depend. 

In fine, the peculiarity of the French provincial spirit is that, for 
the most part, its manifestations are national and not individual. 
Toward other nations abstractly, and toward the people of other 
nations in the concrete, it is exhibited in very nearly the proportion 
in which it is aroused by the exclusive contemplation and knowledge 
of France itself. But its reaction upon the individual in his own 
environment is scarcely apparent. Where neither France nor the 
foreigner is directly in question, «#provincial is precisely the epithet 
for the Frenchman’s mental attitude and processes. The Frenchman 
makes so much of his position as a member of a society whose tex¬ 
ture is extremely close; he employs his relations to his surroundings 
in such constant and salutary fashion, that personally he avoids 
nearly every mark of the provincial spirit. He has little of its nar¬ 
rowness, its self-concentration, its unremittent experimentation, its 
confusion of relative with absolute values. It is, for example, espe¬ 
cially a mark of the provincial spirit to take one’s self too seriously. 
To take one’s self too seriously is the distinguishing trait at once of 
the pedant and the amateur—the person who attaches an excessive 



importance to trifles, and the person who attacks lightly matters 
of great dignity and difficulty ; two archetypes, one may say, of 
the provincialism illustrated by Anglo-Saxons. At home, certainly, 
however he may appear abroad, the Frenchman takes himself far 
less seriously than the Englishman or the American is apt to do 
under sufficient provocation, unrestrained as both are by either the 
dread or the danger of that ridicule which operates with such salu¬ 
tary universality in France. Beside the pedant and the amateur, the 
fat is conspicuously a cosmopolitan, or, at least, a cockney product. 
The badaud himself is a very catholic-minded character; he sinks 
himself in his surroundings. Note the essential difference, from the 
point of view of provincialism, between him and the prig—especially 
that latest and least attractive variety of the species by which at 
present our own society is infested, and from which France is free— 
the prig bent on self-improvement. An environment whose cosmo¬ 
politanism is a pervasive force, instead of mainly a mere lack of 
positive nationality, cannot develop a being of whom it is the car¬ 
dinal characteristic that his constant discipline and effort are exer¬ 
cised uniformly at the expense of others. So perfectly are the 
amateur and the pedant fused in him that the most trivial conversa¬ 
tion is in his eyes an opportunity; he takes notes for self-education 
on the most sacred and solemn occasions; at dinner-parties he is 
studying etiquette, at the whist-table he is improving his game, at 
church he is exercising his memory, in a neighbor’s house or a pic¬ 
ture gallery, his taste ; he has no intimacy too great for him to employ 
in practising his voice, his gestures, his carriage, his demeanor—his 
whole environment, in fact, animate and inanimate, friend and foe, 
he remorselessly sacrifices to his implacable purpose of educating 
himself, whatever may happen. And that he may advance in virtue 
as in wisdom he lets slip no opportunity of educating others. No 
description, indeed, of a society which lacks him can be more vivid 
and positive to a society which possesses him than the mention of 
his absence. One infers at once in such a society the ease and free 
play of the faculties, the large, humorous, and tolerant view of one’s 
self and others, the leisure, the calm, the healthful and effortless 
vivacity, the confidence in one’s own perceptions and in the intelli¬ 
gence of one’s neighbors—characteristics which, very likely, have in 
turn their weak side, but which indicate the urban, the metropoli¬ 
tan, the mundane attitude of a community wherein men rub against 
and polish each other, and exclude the village or conventual ideal of 



laborious effort, careless of the present, forgetful of the past, its 
ardent gaze fixed on a vague recompense in an indefinite future to 
the successful contestant in a rigorous competitive examination. 

Religion, too, has contributed as largely in France to the absence 
of the provincial spirit as it has furthered the social instinct by tend¬ 
ing to social concert and social expansion. Not only, that is to say, 
has religion in France exercised the influence peculiar to Catholi¬ 
cism, but Catholicism has there been without a rival. Protestantism 
exists. The Reformed Church is indeed supported by the State on 
a perfectly proportionate equality with Catholicism, but the blood of 
the martyrs has not been its seed, and it does not really count. The 
leading Paris newspaper is Protestant; many of the leading men are 
of Huguenot descent and cherish Protestant traditions. But these 
themselves discuss every question from a Catholic stand-point, and it 
never occurs to them that society is not homogeneously Catholic. 
Catherine de Medicis is in this respect as much the creator of mod¬ 
ern France as Henry VIII. is of modern England or Philip II. of 
modern Spain. I am so far from content with her work that the 
Massacre of St. Bartholomew seems to me the greatest misfortune 
that has ever befallen France. Compared with it the Prussian in¬ 
vasion of 1870 and the loss of Alsace-Lorraine seem insignificant; 
when we think of the France of Coligny’s time and its potentiali¬ 
ties, the France of to-day, even post-revolutionary France, is, in cer¬ 
tain directions, a disappointment. But it is not to be denied that 
to the Massacre of St. Bartholomew and the Revocation of the Edict 
of Nantes are attributable the religious homogeneousness of French 
society, and, consequently, its composure, its serenity, its absence of 
the provincial spirit in one of the profoundest, most sacred, and most 
influential of human concerns. 

The humanizing effect of unity in religion is one of those phe¬ 
nomena which have only to be mentioned to be immediately appre¬ 
ciated. The attitude of superstition itself is really far less provincial 
than the attitude of scepticism. The one is traditional and social 
in its nature, the other of necessity solitary and personal. Even su¬ 
perstition implies a placid and serene sympathy between its victim 
and his environment. Sophocles, Virgil, Raphael, Shakespeare, 
Erasmus, Goethe—how distinct is the urbanity, the felicity of 
rounded and complete harmony which the mere mention of these 
names reminds us they illustrate in common! How different it is 
from the notion called up by the mention of Luther, Calvin, Bunyan, 


Knox, Byron, Carlyle! Apollo is one type and Achilles is quite ano¬ 
ther. To fight it out for one’s self in the sphere of religion ! To forge 
one’s own credo out of materials painfully selected from the work¬ 
shops of the ages! Not to feel one’s self sustained and supported by 
human sympathy in the supreme human concern! To assume the 
objector’s attitude, to place one’s self at the sceptic’s view-point, to 
particularize laboriously and sift evidence with scrupulous care in a 
matter so positive, so attractive, and so universal—how can this fail 
to stimulate in one the provincial temper, the provincial spirit ? The 
social instinct recoils in the face of such a prospect. The tendency of 
unity is to magnify the worship, of diversity to magnify the philoso¬ 
phy, of religion. How many scores of conscientious and piously- 
disposed young men at the moment when “ choice is brief and yet 
endless ” cut themselves off entirely from the former because they can¬ 
not make up their minds clearly as to the latter! Every one’s experi¬ 
ence has acquainted him with the phenomenon of “truly religious 
souls’’ debarred from the communion of saints, not to say impelled 
toward the communion of sinners, by what Renan calls “the narrow 
judgments of the frivolous man.” The kindred phenomenon result¬ 
ing from the narrow and frivolous judgments of the truly religious 
soul itself, is scarcely less frequent. In New England, at any rate, 
where the old Arian heresy redivivus has produced such luxuriant in¬ 
tellectual fruit, it is not an infrequent occurrence to find the anxious 
seat filled with candidates carefully conning the different “ confes¬ 
sions,” the mind concentrated on the importance of an intelligent 
and impartial selection, preliminary to the satisfaction of the soul’s 
highest need. “The experience of many opinions gives to the mind 
great flexibility and fortifies it in those it believes the best,” says 
Joubert. Nothing can be truer and nothing more just than the high 
praise that has been given to this remark. But it is surely appli¬ 
cable to philosophy rather than to religion, and if applied to religious 
philosophy it should be read in conjunction with that other and pro¬ 
foundly spiritual saying of Joubert: “It is not hard to know God, 
provided one will not force one’s self to define him ” ; or this: “ Make 
truth lovely, and do not try to arm her.” 

The great word of religion is peace, and controversy is, however 
practical it may be, indisputably provincial. Controversy has become 
so characteristic of our sectarianism, it is believed in so sincerely, it 
is, in effect, so necessary as a protection against the insidiousness of 
superstition, that one distrusts its universal efficacy at his peril. No 


33 7 

one, failing to see how this must be so, can fail to observe that it is 
in fact so when he contemplates many of the manifestations of the 
controversial spirit in which our society abounds. A not infrequent 
spiritual experience, for example, is this: a person of inbred piety, 
infinitely attracted by the beauty of holiness, comes in contact 
with the scientific and scrutinizing spirit of the age. The unity of 
nature, the universal identity of her undertakings, which, as Thoreau 
says, are “sure and never fail,” make a profound impression on him. 
He is unable to credit or conceive of their overruling to the end 
that spiritual truth may be attested by miracles. He pays dearly 
for his inability. It excludes him from fellowship with spirits a thou¬ 
sand times more akin to his own than he can find outside the doors 
guarded by the flaming sword of an inflexible credo. He begins, 
nevertheless, to adjust himself to his position. Soon he proceeds 
to vaunt it, out of sheer self-respect. His heart becomes hardened ; 
his intellect freezes; finally he finds a haven in a society for ethical 
culture, whose cardinal tenet it is that the Sermon on the Mount is 
too simple for application to the immensely diversified needs of our 
complex modern society. He may not have lost his own soul, but he 
has certainly not gained the whole world, nor any considerable part 
of it. The world stamps him and his society as essentially provin¬ 
cial, and turns with relief to the fellowship of quarters wherein the 
beautiful and the good stand in no terror of the tyranny of truth. 
From this variety of provincialism, at least, the Massacre of St. Bar¬ 
tholomew and the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes have done 
much to spare France, both in her religion and her irreligion. 

It would, indeed, be very difficult to persuade a Frenchman visit¬ 
ing America of our good faith in charging him with provincialism 
in any regard. Every contrast with things French which meets 
his eye must enforce his sense of our rudimentary and undeveloped 
condition. He could not fail to find our theatres, some of our 
churches, our conception of his interest in cemeteries and penal 
institutions, the transparent dresses of our women on undress, and 
their high-necked “ gowns ” on dress, occasions, our diversified tastes 
in the matter of feminine bonnets and masculine beards, our bath¬ 
ing costumes and manners, our lack of police efficiency, our cuisine , 
the attire and conduct of that immense class among us in whom 
gentility is uneasily nascent, and our categorical and serious defence 
of these and scores of other peculiarities, exactly to be character¬ 
ized by the epithet provincial. He would probably be unabashed 



even by our “ men of general information ”—a product in which, 
perhaps, we may defy competition. He would certainly maintain 
that in France there are more people who have an academic and 
critical knowledge of “ life ” and character, people whose judgments 
of the innumerable and immensely varied phenomena of life and 
character, of art and science, are independent without being capri¬ 
cious. “ The range within which these judgments are restricted 
seems limited to you,” he would assert, “ mainly, perhaps, because 
yours is extended into the region of triviality. Prices of every 
sort from pictures to mess pork, railway time-tables, tinkering, horse 
and dog lore, stitches, sports, the mysteries of plumbing, old fur¬ 
niture, pottery marks, in fact, all that desultory and fragmentary 
‘ information ’ with which your as yet unsystematized struggle with 
nature seems to encrust so many among you, is what, on the con¬ 
trary, we regard as really limited and limiting. And, in general, a 
crystallized and highly developed community seems provincial to the 
nomad and the adventurer, whether he be a Bedouin or a Wall Street 
broker, because it has traditions, local pride, public spirit, and or¬ 
ganic relations; because, great or small, it is and stands for some¬ 
thing at once definite and complex, and is not merely a part of the 
amorphous universe where nothing is settled, where there is no code 
to systematize the general scramble, and where industry and enter¬ 
prise thrive at a tremendous cost to the ensemble, and substitute a 
startling social chiaro-oscuro for the just pictorial values of civiliza¬ 
tion. Paris is ‘ provincial ’ in the same way as your oldest and 
maturest city is. Like Boston, it seems ‘ provincial ’ to the New 
Yorker and the Chicagoan because it is so completely organic, be¬ 
cause it is so distinctly a community instead of being merely a piece 
broken off the wide, wide world. The desert of Sahara is not ‘ pro¬ 
vincial as Balzac said, * It is nothing and yet everything, for God 
is there and man is not!’ You Americans strike us as unprovin¬ 
cial, I may observe, mainly in this Sahara sense.” 

At the same time, we may legitimately rejoin, the catholic and 
cosmopolitan spirit which leads Emerson to find not provincial¬ 
ism but “ characteristic nationality ” in Madame de Stael’s peremp¬ 
tory “ Conversation, like talent, exists only in France,” is probably 
rarer in France than in an environment where there is, if not more 
of God, at any rate less of man. 

W. C. Brownell. 


In the social concussions and agitations now taking place, some 
changes are certain to be made not only in industrial methods but 
also in political and economic theories. When the facts of life 
change, the theories must somehow manage to reconstruct them¬ 
selves accordingly. Filmer’s dogma of the divine right of kings was 
obliged to make way as constitutional government found firmer foot¬ 
ing in England. The notion that government has only police func¬ 
tions cannot be accepted as the popular philosophy, when the peo¬ 
ple, with substantial unanimity, are all the while requiring the Gov¬ 
ernment to assume that other function, so clearly defined in our 
Constitution as the promotion of the general welfare. Theologians 
are always averse to innovations in doctrine; but the history of the¬ 
ology proves that such changes are continually taking place. The 
teachers of social science, also, appear to be somewhat unwilling to 
harbor new theories ; but the social order is quite as changeable as 
the spiritual order; and the need of the frequent restatement of 
social laws is tolerably evident. 

One of the facts that is coming into clearer light is the close 
relation of ethics and economics. This is no new discovery. In 
former times the organic unity of the two departments of know¬ 
ledge was recognized; the first great English economist was a 
teacher of moral science, and believed himself to be teaching, in 
a surreptitious manner, not only morals but religion also, when he 
was expounding the economic laws. In fact the theological as¬ 
sumptions and inferences of the Smithian economy greatly aided 
in giving it currency. Doubtless these assumptions and inferences 
were illegitimate ; but the fact remains that the father of English 
political economy believed that his science was vitally related to 
the science of conduct. Comte always insisted that economics 
could not be profitably studied apart from other topics of human 
concernment; that human welfare was one individual whole, and 
must be treated synthetically, not analytically. Comte’s teaching 
on this subject has been disputed by many of the later economists. 
Even John Stuart Mill, who was indebted to Comte for many stimu- 



lating suggestions, joins issue here with the great positivist. He 

“ Notwithstanding the universal consensus of the social phenomena, whereby 
nothing which takes place in any part of the operation of society is without its show 
of influence on every other part; and notwithstanding the paramount ascendancy 
which the general state of civilization and social progress in any given society must 
here exercise over all the partial and subordinate phenomena; it is not the less true 
that different species of social facts are, in the main, dependent immediately and in 
the first resort on different kinds of causes, and, therefore, not only may with ad¬ 
vantage, but must be studied apart, just as in the natural body we study separately 
the physiology and pathology of each of the principal organs and tissues, though 
every one is acted on by the state of all the others, and though the peculiar condi¬ 
tions and general health of the organism cooperate with, and often predominate 
over, the local causes in determining the state of any particular organ.” 

If there were separate “ organs ” or “ tissues ” in the human nature 
specially devoted to the production and the use of wealth, such an 
illustration would be more pertinent. If man had a money-getting 
organ, as he has an organ of vision, there might be some excuse for 
a class of economists who, for the purpose of the science, should 
isolate his money-getting and money-using faculties from all his 
other forces and interests, and study them apart. But this does not 
seem to represent the case. The industrial powers and the econo¬ 
mical interests of human beings constitute a great department of 
human life by no means distinct from the other departments, but so 
intimately and vitally related to them all that it cannot be usefully 
studied apart from them. Suppose that some physiologist should 
undertake to investigate and expound the phenomena of animal 
locomotion by confining himself to the muscular and osseous sys¬ 
tems, and wholly neglecting all the facts of nerve-stimulation ; would 
his knowledge of the subject be complete? Suppose that another 
should set out to explain the circulatory system without any refer¬ 
ence to the respiratory system! The scientific physiologist does not 
ignore these vital inter-relations of the human economy ; he does not 
imagine that any interests of “science” require him to do so. Now 
the phenomena of the economic order can be no more adequately 
discussed apart from the phenomena of the physical, the intellectual, 
and the moral realms, than animal locomotion can be adequately 
studied without reference to the neural forces. The production of 
wealth depends on the physical powers of the laborer; on his intelli¬ 
gence ; on his temper ; on the social estimation in which he is held ; on 
the various prospects and incitements set before him ; on a thousand 



subtle but powerful influences wholly outside of what is usually de¬ 
fined as the economic motive. Even if the economic man could be 
scientifically dissected out of the human nature, as an eye may be 
dissected from the head, it would still be necessary to study the 
social welfare of man in its completeness, in order that we might 
rightly understand and wisely treat economical questions. The ocu¬ 
list makes the eye his specialty, but he needs to know the human 
physiology comprehensively; the condition of the other organs con¬ 
stantly affects the eyes; and morbid conditions of the eyes may 
affect the whole nervous system. The quack oculist contents him¬ 
self with studying the eye ; the scientific oculist recognizes the need 
of a liberal medical education. His diagnosis is never complete until 
he knows all he can learn about the general health of his patient. 

The relation between ethics and economics is not less vital than 
that between medicine and morals. Every sensible clergyman recog¬ 
nizes the fact that many of the moral and spiritual maladies with 
which he has to deal arise from morbid conditions of the body ; and 
many physicians are aware that not a few of the ills that flesh is 
heir to have their parentage in minds diseased. All but thorough¬ 
going materialists see and confess this reciprocal relation of mental 
states and bodily conditions. Trouble that is purely ideal or senti¬ 
mental makes sad inroads upon the human frame ; physical habits 
weaken and efface the mental and moral powers. The germs of 
crime are in dyspepsia, and many a physical disorder is due to a 
lie. This does not imply that no distinction is to be made 
between the medical and the clerical professions, or that the men 
of each profession must be experts in the department of the other; 
but it does show that the fact of their close sympathy should 
be clearly recognized, and that the border-lands should be well 
explored by students and practitioners of both professions. The 
.clergyman is not called to usurp the doctor’s province, nor to med¬ 
dle with his practice; but if he does not know that many spirit¬ 
ual disturbances have their spring in physical derangements, he is 
not fit to minister to minds diseased. The doctor may not feel 
called to preach to his patients; but if he has not discovered that 
there are many diseases which are not due to physical causes, and 
which drugs cannot cure, he still lacks wisdom. All modern psy¬ 
chologists study physiology patiently and profoundly ; it is not sup¬ 
posed that mental phenomena can be adequately treated without 
some knowledge of the physical conditions in connection with which 



they always appear. Now ethics is the soul of sociology, as econo¬ 
mics is its body ; and the relation of this body to this soul is as in¬ 
timate as that of the physical to the spiritual nature of man. Be¬ 
tween them a constant series of reciprocal actions is taking place; 
and what Lotze says of the two parts of man’s nature is true of 
these related provinces of social life: “ By a fine-spun tissue of num¬ 
berless relations are both most admirably fitted to work on each 
other’s states and needs. For each action and reaction passing 
between them is a fibre of that which forms their mutual bond.” * 

It is quite as easy to show how ethical causes produce economical 
effects, and vice-versa, as it is to show the causal relation between 
the bodily and the mental experiences of men. Do not the vices of 
the laboring classes affect the productive industries of the nation ? 
Is not the deterioration of the labor-force, through poverty and in¬ 
sufficient nutriment, almost always accompanied by moral degrada¬ 
tion? Is not the loss of stamina often suffered by masses of labor¬ 
ers during seasons of industrial depression a tremendous fact of the 
moral, as well as of the economic realm ? Suppose that the de¬ 
duction of Cairnes be true (I do not assume it), that under a wage- 
system with unrestricted competition as the regulative principle, the 
share of the laborer in the product of his labor constantly tends to 
decrease : if that fact were known to the laborers, would it not tend 
to produce discontent and discouragement among them, begetting 
vice and pauperism ? And would not this degradation of the laborer 
react upon production, lessening its amount and depreciating its 
quality? Even so ethereal a force as courtesy has its economic 
effects. The employer who always treats his workmen with a 
genuine politeness, who manifests a since’re interest in their welfare 
by kindly speech and sympathetic treatment, finds his profit in such 
friendliness; he is apt to get from them a more loyal and efficient 
service, and, in the time of industrial conflicts, to find them working, 
on in peace while others round about them are in insurrection 
against their employers. It is not rare, even in these tempestuous 
times, to hear workmen speak with affectionate respect of a master 
as “ a white man,”—“ a good man to work for.” Temper is a great 
matter in a factory as well as in a cart. Good will inspires good 
will, and good will is one of the prime constituents of good work. 

President Walker has shown,f by a most impressive demonstra¬ 
tion, that the sympathy of the community with the laborer tends to 

* Microcosmus, Book III., Chap. I. 

f The Wages Question, p. 362. 



increase his share in the product of his industry. Sympathy with 
the laborer is a purely moral force; if it influences the distribution 
of the product of industry, it has an economic effect. The same 
writer has also shown that even so impersonal an interest as that of 
rent is powerfully affected by public opinion ; that one strong reason 
why rents in England, for example, have not risen to the extreme and 
cruel altitudes that they have reached in Ireland is due to the con¬ 
stant restraint upon the landlords of the moral sentiment of the 
vicinage. And he quotes from Prof. Thorold Rogers the state¬ 
ment that the English tenant “ is virtually protected by the dis¬ 
reputable publicity which would be given to a sudden eviction, or a 
dishonest appropriation of the tenant’s improvements.” 

Most of what I have said bears upon the relation of the moral 
sentiments and habits of the people to the production of wealth. 
This is the department of political economy in which ethical causes 
are least prominent. The last illustration, however, takes us into 
the field of distribution, and here the attempt to separate morals 
from economics is extremely difficult. Indeed the economists them¬ 
selves—even those who most strenuously protest against the fellow¬ 
ship of the two sciences—are often found diligently preaching about 
what ought and ought not to be done in all this field. The objec¬ 
tion to combinations of laborers, as urged by the old-fashioned econo¬ 
mists, rested largely on moral grounds. If they tried to show that 
such combinations could not render the distribution of the product 
any more equitable, and could only tend to the crippling of produc¬ 
tion, they also placed much stress upon the effect of such combina¬ 
tions in weakening the laborer’s self-reliance, and destroying his in¬ 
dividuality. The fact that freedom is the necessary condition of 
the most efficient production and the most equitable distribution of 
wealth, could not be separated in their minds from the fact that free¬ 
dom is also the necessary condition of the development of manhood. 
Theoretically the two considerations might be kept apart, but prac¬ 
tically they have not been, and we shall presently see why they were 
not and should not be ; why the economists were more scientific in 
their practice than in their theory. On the other hand, the ad¬ 
vocates of labor organization also rest their plea largely on moral 
grounds, contending that freedom is indeed the condition of human 
welfare, and that the laborer dealing single handed with the rich em¬ 
ployer or the great corporation possesses only a nominal freedom ; 
that by the power of concentrated wealth he is reduced to practical 



servitude; that it is only in strong combinations of laborers that the 
freedom of labor is realized. I have no doubt, for one, that there is 
truth in both contentions. The individualistic regime, with free con¬ 
tract and competition, works well up to a certain point, because it 
tends to make men independent and self-reliant; nevertheless, indivi¬ 
dualism, unchecked by the moral forces, inevitably results in those 
stupendous aggregations of material power which tend to the degra¬ 
dation and enslavement of the laborer. On the other hand, to pre¬ 
vent this degradation and enslavement, and to secure to the work¬ 
ing-man a measure of liberty, strong organizations of working-men 
are necessary; but these very organizations have a tendency to sup¬ 
press individuality, to substitute mob law for independent judgment, 
and to protect the shiftless and the unskilful from the natural pe¬ 
nalties of their inefficiency. Up to the point at which it ceases to 
develop the character of the individual, each of these systems is 
good ; beyond that point, it is evil. The need of protecting the in¬ 
dividual against the tyranny of the competitive regime, and not less 
against the tyranny of incipient socialism, is obvious enough to every 
philanthropist. That this can only be done by the energetic use of 
moral forces, is also apparent. A community of sober and intelligent 
workmen will know how to combine for their own protection, and 
how to protect themselves against the tyranny of their own combi¬ 

This discussion suggests that the vital point of the labor question 
is the character of the laborer. The deepest test of every industrial 
system is its effect upon the manhood of the people who do the 
work. Does it make them strong, free, hopeful, self-reliant? If so, 
it is a good system. Does it make them weak, dependent, restless ? 
If so, it is a system that needs mending. 

But it will be said that all this is outside the realm of economics; 
that it belongs to the province of the statesman or the moralist, but 
not to that of the economist. I have already suggested that, as a 
matter of fact, the economists have not kept out of this field; that, 
although sometimes protesting that they had no business in it, they 
have, nevertheless, made themselves very much at home in it. That 
their protests are mistaken and their practice rational will appear, 
when we consider what is the field of political economy, and what 
is the supreme end which, as a practical study, it must always keep 
in view. Under the reasonings and investigations of the old eco¬ 
nomists this postulate seems to lie —that the increase of the national 



wealth is desirable. Is this postulate true without qualification ? 
What do we mean by it? How about the element of time? Are 
we thinking of the present or of the future? Is that present in¬ 
crease of national wealth desirable which shall lay a foundation for 
national want in the next year or the next century? Must not the 
economist take into the account the natural good of the genera¬ 
tions following, as well as of the present generation ? 

And there is a deeper question still: Is the increase of the na¬ 
tional wealth an intrinsic good ? Is it an infallible sign of progress, 
if the tables of the census show that the people are richer at the 
end of each succeeding decade? Might not the sum total of the 
wealth of the nation be greatly increasing, while large sections of 
the population were sinking into deeper and deeper want and mis¬ 
ery ? History has some impressive testimony to offer on this point. 
Rome was growing rich very fast in the day when only about two 
thousand proprietors owned the world, and the rest of mankind were 
slaves and paupers. The wise economist wishes to know, there¬ 
fore, not only that the national wealth is increasing, but also how it 
is distributed. This question of the general distribution of the na¬ 
tional wealth concerns him quite as deeply as the question of its ag¬ 
gregate amount, because he knows that a state of society in which 
wealth is as unequally distributed as it was in Rome in the days 
of the New Monarchy cannot long endure. And the conclusion to 
which every student of economics who looks beneath the surface 
must speedily come is that which has been so sharply stated by 
one of the most thoughtful of recent economists: 

“ The maintenance of life, the maintenance of as noble a life as may be, is the 
function of wealth ; only the miser seeks wealth for the mere satisfaction of 
possessing it, that is, as an end in itself, for its own sake. Wealth, whether 
sought by nations or by individuals, is a mediate end, and the final end which 
it is meant to subserve is the maintenance of life ; not merely the maintenance 
of existence, but the maintenance of a life that is undoubtedly worth living.” * 

The postulate of the old economy is not, then, true without 
qualification. The increase of the national wealth is not in itself 
desirable; it is only desirable when it tends to the maintenance of 
the national life, to the promotion of the national welfare. The 
increase of the aggregate wealth of the people is a mediate end, and 
not an ultimate end. The ultimate end is the national well-being. 
And this certainly admits no separation of the people into contrasted 

* Politics and Economics, by W. Cunningham, p. 114. 



classes—a plutocracy above and a proletariate below; it involves a 
wide diffusion of property, and knowledge, and power; it implies 
that the working-classes, in particular, are healthy, and hopeful, and 
contented. Thinking only of the material well-being of the nation, it 
is evident, to use the words of Mr. Cunningham, “ that a vigorous, 
industrial population is the true source of wealth.” “ Of course,” the 
same writer goes on, “ there are many traits which must be com¬ 
bined, if the population is to have this character in a high degree. 
Labor of any sort involves toil, and for toil physical health is neces¬ 
sary ; the more important kinds of work involve skill, and techni¬ 
cal training as well as mental development are both highly requi¬ 
site ; and if the work is to be well done, and the wares produced 
thoroughly good, there must be much honesty and high character 
among the workers, so that the goods shall be made to last, and not 
merely to look well. Health, skill, and moral character are elements 
which are necessary in the population, if the national life is to be 
effectively sustained and prolonged.” * 

This, then, is the end which the political economist must keep in 
view. He is studying the laws of the production, the distribution, 
and the consumption of wealth ; and he must never lose sight of the 
relation which these processes bear to the life of the nation. The one 
supreme interest with him must be “ the continual maintenance of the 
national stock, by seeking the development of the productive power 
of the nation, whether in its inhabitants or in its physical resources.” 
This is really the truth that the new political economy has found, 
and is bound to emphasize. It refuses to take the miser’s view of 
material wealth ; it insists that the life of a nation, just as the life of 
a man, does not consist in the abundance of the things that it pos¬ 
sesses. Thus it becomes in the deepest sense an ethical science. It 
is not possible to consider this broader question of the maintenance 
of the nation’s life without constant reference to moral laws and 

“ We need a new Adam Smith, or another Hume,” says President Walker, " to 
write the economics of consumption, in which would be found the real dynamics 
of wealth ; to trace to their effects upon production the forces that are set in motion 
by the uses made of wealth ; to show how certain forms of consumption clear the 
mind, strengthen the hand, and elevate the aims of the individual economic agent, 
while promoting that social order and mutual confidence which are favorable con¬ 
ditions for the complete development and harmonious action of the industrial sys¬ 
tem ; how other forms of consumption debase and debauch man as an economic 

* Politics and Economics, by W. Cunningham, p. 115. 



agent, and introduce disorder and waste into the complicated mechanism of the 
productive agencies. Here is the opportunity for some great moral philosopher, 
confining himself strictly to the economical effects of these causes, denying him¬ 
self all regard to purely ethical, political, or theological considerations, to write 
what shall be the most important chapter of political economy, now, alas, almost 
a blank.” * 

With the general drift of this passage I heartily agree, but some 
of the qualifying terms are not quite clear to me. The fact that 
political economy is waiting to have its most important chapter 
written by some great moral philosopher, is good proof that ethics 
and economics are near relations. The truth which this philosopher 
is to emphasize is that moral causes have economic effects. He is to 
show the absolute impossibility of separating these two realms. Doc¬ 
tor Walker himself has done some excellent work along this line. 
To purely ethical considerations he will, of course, deny himself all 
regard, because the very fact that he is to discuss is the blending of 
ethical with economical considerations. It is a good service to which 
he is summoned ; let him stand not on the order of his coming. 
When his work shall have been completed, it will be evident that 
the divorce which some have sought to procure between ethics 
and economics is the violent and unnatural putting asunder of what 
God has joined together. 

In due time it may appear that the science which makes wealth 
an ultimate and not a mediate end, like the trade or the industry 
which takes the same view, is perverted and accursed by that very 
fact. A dismal science it is, and forever will be. There is no profit 
to the intellect or the morals of the people in a study which ignores 
this vital distinction. Political economy ought to be the most 
liberalizing and the most stimulating of all studies; it ought to 
awaken the enthusiasm and arouse the generous aspirations of its 
students, and it will not fail to do so when it makes the nation’s life 
and not the nation’s purse the supreme object of its care. 

Washington Gladden. 

* Political Economy , p. 322. 


The rapid progress of Guatemala during the last twelve years, 
and its advancement toward a modern standard of civilization, have 
both been due to the energy and determination of one man, the late 
Jos6 Rufino Barrios. The prevailing opinion of President Barrios is 
that he was a brutal ruffian; but in estimating his true character 
the good he accomplished should be considered as well as the evil. 
Until the history of Central America shall be written years hence, 
when the mind can reflect calmly and impartially upon the scenes of 
this decade, when public benefits can be accurately measured with 
individual errors, and the strides of progress in material development 
can be justly estimated, his true character will not be understood or 
appreciated, even by his own countrymen. Like all vigorous and 
progressive men, like all men of strong character and forcible mea¬ 
sures, he had bitter, vindictive enemies. For these there was nothing 
too harsh to say of him, living or dead, no cruelties too barbarous 
to accuse him of, no revenge too severe to visit upon him or his 
memory. But, on the other hand, people who did not cherish a 
spirit of revenge, who had no political ambition and no schemes to 
be disconcerted, who are interested in the development of Central 
America, and are enjoying the benefits of the progress Guatemala has 
made, regard Barrios as the best friend, the ablest leader, the wisest 
ruler his country ever had, and sincerely wish his life could have 
been prolonged and his power extended over the entire continent. 
They are willing to concede to him not only honorable motives, 
but the worthy ambition of trying to lift his country to a level with 
the most advanced nations of the earth. While he did not furnish 
a government of the people, by the people, it was a government 
for the people, provided and administered by a man of remarkable 
ability, independence, ambition, and extraordinary pride. While his 
iron hand crushed all opposition and held a power that yielded to 
nothing, he was, nevertheless, generous to the poor, lenient to those 
who would submit to him, and ready to do anything to improve the 
condition of his people or promote their welfare. 

That a man of President Barrios’s ancestry and early associations 


should have brought that republic to the condition in which he left 
it when he died, is very remarkable. Without education himself, 
he enacted a law requiring the attendance at school of all children 
between the ages of eight and fourteen years, and rigorously enforced 
it. People who refused to obey this law were compelled to pay a 
heavy fine for the privilege. He established a university at Guate¬ 
mala City and free schools in every city of the republic; he founded 
hospitals, asylums, and other institutions of charity with his own 
means, or supported them by appropriations from the public trea¬ 
sury, and compelled physicians to be educated properly before they 
were allowed to practice. He punished crime so severely that it was 
almost unknown ; he regulated the sale of liquors, so that a drunken 
man was never seen upon the streets ; he enforced the observance 
of the Sabbath by closing the stores and market-places, which in 
other Spanish-American republics are always open, and was active 
for the material as for the moral welfare of the people. During the 
twelve years he was in power the country made greater progress, and 
the citizens enjoyed greater prosperity, than during any period of 
all the three centuries and a half of its previous history. 

After the achievement of independence by the Central American 
colonies the priests ruled the country. Their excesses awakened a 
spirit of opposition which finally culminated in a revolution. The 
famous Morazan became dictator, and might have been successful 
but for a decree he issued abolishing the convents and monasteries, 
and confiscating the entire property of the Church. This was in 
1843. Led by the priests, the people rose in rebellion ; but Mora¬ 
zan retained his power until an unknown man, tall, dark, and blood¬ 
thirsty, came out of the mountains—an Indian without a name, 
who could neither read nor write, whose occupation had been that 
of a swine-herd, like Pizarro, who had graduated into the profession 
of a bandit, and led a gang of murderous outlaws in the mountains. 
Urged by a greed for plunder, this remarkable man, Rafael Carera, 
came from his stronghold and joined the Church party in their war 
against the Government. His successes as a guerrilla were so great 
that what had been a small, independent band became the main army 
of the opposition; and he led a horde of disorganized plunderers 
toward the capital. The priests called him “the Chosen of God,” 
and attributed to him the divinely inspired mission of restoring the 
Church to power. The churchmen rushed to his standard, to fight 
under the command of a savage whose only motive was plunder. 



He drove Morazan into Costa Rica, and proclaimed himself dicta¬ 
tor. The Church party were amazed at the arrogance of the bandit, 
but had to submit, and he soon developed into a full-fledged tyrant, 
ruling over Guatemala for a period of thirty years. 

When Carera died there was no man to take his place, and the 
Church party began to decay. The Liberals gathered force and 
began a revolution. In their ranks was an obscure young man from 
the borders of Mexico; from a valley which produced Juarez, the 
liberator of Mexico, Diaz, the President of that republic, and other 
famous men. This youth, Rufino Barrios, began to show military 
skill and force of character, and, when the Church party was over¬ 
thrown and the Liberal leader was proclaimed President, he became 
the general of the army. He soon resigned, however, and returned 
to his coffee plantation on the borders of Mexico. But the revival 
of the Church party shortly after caused him to return to military 
life, and on the death of the Liberal President, in 1873, he was 
chosen his successor. 

From that date until 1885 Barrios was the one foremost man in 
Guatemala. He began his career by adopting the policy Morazan 
had failed to enforce. He expelled the monks and nuns from the 
country, confiscated the Church property, robbed the priests of their 
power, and, like Juarez in Mexico, liberated the people from a servi¬ 
tude under which they had suffered since the original settlement of 
the colonies. Then he visited the United States and Europe to 
study the science of government; sent men abroad to be educated 
at government expense, and upon their return gave them positions 
under him. He offered the most generous inducements to immi¬ 
grants, and the country filled up with agricultural settlers, merchants, 
and mechanics. As the population increased, the country began to 
grow in prosperity with the development of its natural resources, 
and there was a “ boom ” in Guatemala the like of which had not 
been known there before. Roadways were constructed from the 
sea-coast to the interior, so that produce could be brought to mar¬ 
ket ; diligence lines were established at government expense; liberal 
railroad contracts were made, telegraph lines were erected, and 
modern facilities for trade and travel were introduced. The credit 
of the country was restored by a careful readjustment of its finances, 
and encouragement from the Government brought in a large amount 
of European capital—so that to-day, while the other Central Ameri¬ 
can States are still in the condition they were one hundred years 



ago, or have retrograded, Guatemala has stepped to the front, rich, 
powerful, progressive, and, but for the peculiar appearance of the 
houses, the language of the people, and the customs they have in¬ 
herited from their ancestors, little different from the new States of 
our own great West. 

Having overthrown the religion in which the people had been 
reared, President Barrios recognized the necessity of providing some 
better substitute. He, therefore, through the British Minister, in¬ 
vited the Established Church of England to send missionaries to 
Guatemala; but, owing to the disturbed condition of the country, it 
was not considered advisable to commence work at that time, and 
the opportunity was neglected. In 1883, however, on a visit to New 
York, he had conferences with the officers of the Presbyterian Board 
of Foreign Missions, which resulted in diverting the Rev. John C. 
Hill, of Chicago, who was en route to China, into this field of labor. 
Mr. Hill, returning with the President to Guatemala, received a 
cordial welcome, and shared all the attentions given to his distin¬ 
guished patron ; so that the blushing young parson found himself 
again and again on public platforms with the President of Guate¬ 
mala leaning upon his shoulder, and introducing him to the people 
as his friend. This demonstration had its purpose, and resulted pre¬ 
cisely as General Barrios intended it should. He meant that the 
people should know that he had taken the missionary and the cause 
he represented under the patronage of the Government, and ex¬ 
pected them to show the same respect and honor as he bestowed 
himself. He went still further. He placed Mr. Hill in one of his 
own houses, and there the school and chapel were opened. He sent 
his own children to the new Sunday-school, and induced members 
of his Cabinet to follow his example. He issued a decree to the 
collectors of customs to admit free of duty all articles which Mr. 
Hill desired to import, and in every possible manner showed his in¬ 
terest in the success of the work. The Protestant Mission became 
fashionable, and was known as the “ President’s pet.” The Catholics 
looked askance at the rapidity with which the breach was widened 
in the walls they had been nearly four hundred years in erecting, 
but they dared not utter even a remonstrance against those favored 
by the potent force behind the military guard. They saw the 
monks and nuns expelled, the churches sold at public auction for 
the benefit of the public treasury—and, with a muttered curse 
against the power by which all these things were done, submitted 



servilely to its will for fear of losing even that which they had so 
far been able to retain. 

General Barrios was always dramatic. He was as dramatic in 
the simplicity and frugality of his private life as he was in the dis¬ 
play he was constantly making for the diversion of the people. In 
striking contrast with the customs of a country where men’s gar¬ 
ments and manners are the objects of the most fastidious attention, 
he was careless in his clothing, brusque in his manner, and frank in 
his declarations. It is said that the Spanish language was framed 
to conceal thought, but Barrios used none of its honeyed phrases, 
and had the candor of an American frontiersman. He readily ac¬ 
cepted suggestions, but was naturally secretive. He had no con¬ 
fidants, made his own plans without consulting any one, and when 
he was ready to announce his purposes used language that could 
not be misunderstood. In disposition he was sympathetic and affec¬ 
tionate, and when he liked a man he showered favors upon him ; 
when he distrusted he was cold and repelling; and when he hated 
his vengeance was swift and sure. To be detected in an intrigue 
against his life, or the stability of the Government, which was the 
same thing, meant death or exile. The last time his assassination 
was attempted, he pardoned the men whose hands threw the bomb 
at him, but those who hired them saved their lives by flight from 
the country. If caught, they would have been shot without trial. 
He was the most industrious man in Central America: slept little, 
ate little, and never indulged in the siesta that is as much a part of 
the daily life of the people as breakfast and dinner. He did every¬ 
thing with a nervous impetuosity, thought rapidly, and acted in¬ 
stantly. The ambition of his life was to reunite the republics of 
Central America in a confederacy such as existed a few years after 
the achievement of their independence. The benefits of such a 
union are apparent to all who understand the political, geographi¬ 
cal, and commercial conditions of the continent, and are acknow¬ 
ledged by the thinking men of the five states, but the consumma¬ 
tion of the plan is prevented by the ambition of local leaders. Each 
is willing to join the union if he can be dictator, but none will per¬ 
mit a union with any other man as chief. 

Diplomatic negotiations looking to a consolidation of the five 
Central American republics extended over a period of several years, 
but were fruitless because of local jealousies. The leading politicians 
in the several states feared they would lose their prominence and 



power, and distrusted Barrios, although he assured them that he was 
not ambitious to be dictator. He thought he was the right man to 
carry out the plan, but proposed to retire as soon as it was consum¬ 
mated, in order to permit the people to frame their constitution and 
elect their executive, promising that he would not be a candidate. 
As he told the writer shortly after his coup-d'Mat, he desired to 
retire from public life and reside in the United States, which he 
considered the paradise of nations. He had already purchased a 
home and invested money in New York, and was educating his chil¬ 
dren with a view to residence there. 

Sending emissaries into the several states to study public senti¬ 
ment, he became assured that the time was ripe for the consumma¬ 
tion of his plans. He believed that the masses of the people were 
ready to join in a reunion of the republics, and had the assurance of 
Zaldivar, the President of San Salvador, and Bogran, the President 
of Honduras, that they would consent to his temporary dictatorship. 
He determined upon a coup-d'Mat. Moral suasion had failed, so he 
decided to try force, with the cooperation of San Salvador and Hon¬ 
duras, which, with Guatemala, represented five-sixths of the popula¬ 
tion of Central America. He believed he could persuade Nicaragua 
and Costa Rica to accept a manifest destiny, and join the union. 

On the evening of Sunday, February 28, 1885, the aristocracy of 
Guatemala were gathered as usual at the National Theatre, to wit¬ 
ness the performance of Boccaccio by a French opera company. In 
the midst of the play one of the most exciting situations was inter¬ 
rupted by the appearance of a uniformed officer upon the stage, who 
motioned the performers back from the foot-lights and read Barrios’s 
proclamation declaring himself dictator and supreme commander 
of all Central America, and calling upon the citizens of the five re¬ 
publics to acknowledge his authority and take the oath of allegiance. 
The people are accustomed to earthquakes, but no terrestrial com¬ 
motion ever created so much excitement as the eruption of this 
political volcano. The actors fled in surprise to their dressing- 
rooms, while the audience organized into an impromptu mass-meet¬ 
ing to ratify the audacity of their President. 

Few eyes were closed that night in Guatemala. Although every 
one knew that Barrios had long aspired to restore the old union of 
the republics, no one seemed to be prepared for the coup-d'Mat, 
and the announcement fell with a force that made the whole coun¬ 
try tremble. The next morning, as if by magic, the city seemed 


filled with soldiers. Whence they came, or how they had arrived 
so suddenly, the people did not seem to comprehend ; and when 
the doors of great warehouses opened to disclose large supplies of 
ammunition and arms, the public eye was distended with amazement. 
All these preparations had been made so silently and secretly that 
the surprise was complete. But for three or four years Barrios had 
been preparing for this day, and his plans had been laid with a suc¬ 
cess that challenged even his own admiration. He had ordered 
all the soldiers in the republic to be at Guatemala City on March I ; 
but the commands had been given secretly, and the captain of one 
company was not aware that another was expected. It was not done 
by the wand of a magician, as the superstitious people are given to 
believing, but was the result of a long and a carefully studied plan 
by one who was born a dictator, and knew how to perform the 

But the commotion was even greater in the other republics, over 
which Barrios had assumed uninvited control. The night on which 
the official announcement was made, telegrams were sent to the 
Presidents of Honduras, San Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica, 
calling upon them to acknowledge the temporary supremacy of Dic¬ 
tator Barrios, and to sign Articles of Confederation of the Central 
American Union. Messengers had been sent in advance bearing 
official copies of the proclamation in which the reasons for the 
step were set forth, but with directions not to deliver them until 
notified by telegraph. The President of Honduras welcomed the 
dictatorship, having been in close conference with Barrios on the 
subject previous to the announcement. The President of San Sal¬ 
vador, Doctor Zaldivar, who was also aware of the intentions of Bar¬ 
rios and was expected to fall in with the plan as readily as President 
Bogran, created some surprise by asking time to consider. As far 
as he was personally concerned, he said, there was nothing that 
would please him more than to comply with the wishes of the Dic¬ 
tator, but he must consult the people. He promised to call Con¬ 
gress together at once, that after due consideration it might take 
such action as it thought proper. Nicaragua boldly and empha¬ 
tically refused to recognize the authority of Barrios, and rejected 
the plan of the union. Costa Rica replied in the same manner, her 
president telegraphing Barrios that she wanted no union with the 
other Central American states, was satisfied with her own indepen¬ 
dence, and recognized no dictator; that her people would defend 


their soil and their liberty, and would appeal to the civilized world 
for protection against any unwarranted attack. 

The policy of Nicaragua was governed by the influence of a firm 
of British merchants in Leon, with which President Cardenas had a 
pecuniary interest, and by whom his official acts Avere controlled. 
The policy of Costa Rica was governed by a conservative sentiment 
that has always prevailed in that country, while the influence of 
Mexico was felt throughout the entire group of nations. As soon 
as the proclamation of Barrios was announced at the capital of the 
latter republic, President Diaz ordered an army into the field, and 
telegraphed offers of assistance to Nicaragua, San Salvador, and 
Costa Rica, with threats of violence to Honduras if she yielded 
submission. Mexico had always been jealous of Guatemala. The 
boundary line between the two nations was unsettled, and a rich 
tract of country in dispute. Feeling a natural distrust of the power 
below her, strengthened by alliance with the other states, Mexico 
was prepared to resist the plans of Barrios to the last degree, and 
sent him a declaration of war. 

In the mean time, Barrios had appealed for the approval of the 
United States and the nations of Europe. During the brief admin¬ 
istration of President Garfield he had visited Washington, and there 
received assurance of encouragement from Mr. Blaine in his plan 
to reorganize the Central American Confederacy. These personal 
interviews were followed by an extended correspondence, and no 
one was so fully informed of Barrios’s plans as Mr. Henry C. Hall, 
the United States Minister at Guatemala. Unfortunately the cable 
to Europe and the United States was under the control of San 
Salvador, landing at La Libertad, the principal port of that repub¬ 
lic. Here was the greatest obstacle in the way of Barrios’s suc¬ 
cess. All his despatches to foreign governments were sent over¬ 
land to La Libertad for further transmission by cable, but none 
of them reached their destination. The commandant of the port, 
under orders from Zaldivar, seized the office and suppressed the 
messages. Barrios sought to inform the foreign powers fully of 
his plans and the motives which prompted them, repeating to each 
the assurance that he was not inspired by personal ambition and 
would accept only a temporary dictatorship. As soon as a consti¬ 
tutional convention of delegates from the several republics could 
assemble he would retire, he declared, and permit the choice of a 
president of the consolidated republics by a popular election, he 


himself under no circumstances to be a candidate. But these dec¬ 
larations were never sent. In place of them Zaldivar transmitted 
a series of despatches misrepresenting the situation, and appealing 
for protection against Guatemalan tyranny. 

The replies of foreign nations and the comments of the press, 
based upon the falsehoods of Zaldivar, had a very depressing effect 
upon the country. They were more or less doctored before publi¬ 
cation, and bogus bulletins were posted for the purpose of deceiving 
the people. The inhabitants of San Salvador were led to believe 
that naval fleets were on their way from the United States and 
Europe to prevent the consolidation of the republics by force, that 
an army was coming overland from Mexico to attack Guatemala on 
the north, and that several transports loaded with troops had left 
New Orleans for the east coast of Nicaragua and Honduras. The 
United States Coast-Survey ship, Ranger, carrying four small guns, 
happening to enter at La Union, Nicaragua, engaged in its regular 
duties, was magnified into a fleet of hundreds of thousands of tons; 
so that the people of San Salvador and Nicaragua, convinced that 
submission to Barrios would require them to engage the combined 
forces of Europe and the United States, rose in resistance and sup¬ 
ported Zaldivar in his treachery. 

The effect in Guatemala was similar, although not so pronounced. 
There was a reversion of feeling against the Government. The 
moneyed men, who in their original enthusiasm had tendered their 
funds to the President, withdrew their promises; the common peo¬ 
ple grew nervous and lost confidence in their hero; while the Diplo¬ 
matic Corps were in a state of panic because they received no in¬ 
structions from home. The German and French Ministers, like the 
Minister from the United States, were favorable to Barrios’s plans; 
the Spanish Minister was outspoken in opposition ; the English and 
Italian Ministers non-committal; but none of them knew what to 
say or how to act in the absence of instructions. They telegraphed 
to their home governments repeatedly, but could obtain no replies, 
and suspected that the trouble might be in San Salvador. Mr. 
Hall, the American Minister, transmitted a full description of the 
situation every evening and begged for instructions, but did not re¬ 
ceive a word beyond the advices previously sent by mail. These in¬ 
formed him that the Government’s policy in relation to the plan to 
reunite the republics was one of non-interference, and advised him 
that the spirit of the century was contrary to the use of force to 


35 7 

accomplish such an end. Acting upon this information, Mr. Hall 
had frequent and cordial conferences with the President, and re¬ 
ceived from him a promise that he would not invade either of the 
neighboring republics, unless forced to do so. If Guatemala was in¬ 
vaded he would retaliate, but otherwise would not cross the border. 
In the mean time the forces of Guatemala, 40,000 strong, were 
massed at the capital, the streets were full of marching soldiers, and 
the air was filled with martial music, while Zaldivar was raising an 
army by conscription in San Salvador, and money by forced loans. 
His Government daily announced the arrival of so many “ volun¬ 
teers” at the capital, but the volunteering was a transparent myth. 
There was a current anecdote of a recruiting officer who wrote to 
the Secretary of War: 

“ I send you forty more volunteers. Please return me the ropes with which 
their hands and legs are tied, as I shall need them to bind the quota from the next 

In the city of San Salvador many of the merchants closed their stores, 
and concealed themselves to avoid the payment of forced loans. 
The Government called a Junta, or meeting, of the wealthy residents, 
each one being personally notified by an officer that his attendance 
was required, at which the Secretary of War announced that a 
million dollars for the equipment of troops must be instantly raised. 
The Government, he said, was assured of the aid of foreign powers 
to defeat the plans of Barrios, but until the forces of Europe and 
the United States could reach the coast the republic must protect 
itself. Each merchant and estancero (planter) was assessed a certain 
amount to make the total required, and was ordered to pay it into 
the treasury within twenty-four hours. Some responded promptly, 
others procrastinated, and a few flatly refused. The latter were 
thrust into jail, and the confiscation of their property threatened 
unless they paid. In one or two cases the threat was executed ; but 
on the day after the meeting the Official Gazette announced, with 
cold sarcasm, that the patriotic citizens of San Salvador had volun¬ 
tarily come to the assistance of the Government with their arms and 
means, and had tendered financial aid to the amount of $1,000,000, 
the acceptance of which the President was now considering. 

Barrios, knowing that the army of Zaldivar would invade Guate¬ 
mala, commenced an offensive campaign. In order to occupy the 
attention of the people, he sent a detachment of troops to the fron¬ 
tier, and decided to accompany them. The evening before he started 


there was what is called “ a grand funcion ” at the National Theatre. 
All of the military bands assembled at the capital—a dozen or more— 
were consolidated for the occasion, and between the acts performed 
a march composed by a local musician in honor of the Union of 
Central America, and dedicated to General Barrios. A large screen 
of sheeting was elaborately painted with the inscription, “ All hail 
to the Union of the Republic! Long live the Dictator and the 
Generalissimo, J. Rufino Barrios! ” This was attached to heavy 
rollers, to be dropped in front of the stage instead of the regular 
curtain at the end of the second act of the play, for the purpose of 
creating a sensation; and a sensation it did create—an unexpected 
and frightful one. As the orchestra commenced to play the new 
march the curtain was slowly lowered, and the audience greeted it 
with tremendous applause. But through the blunder of the stage 
carpenter the weights were too heavy for the cotton sheeting; the 
banner split, and the heavy rollers at the bottom fell over into the 
orchestra, severely wounding several of the musicians. As fate 
would have it, the rent was directly through the name of Barrios. 
The people, naturally superstitious, were horrified, and stood aghast 
at this omen of disaster. The cheering ceased instantly, and a dead 
silence prevailed, broken only by the noise of the musicians under 
the wreck struggling to recover their feet. A few of the more cou¬ 
rageous friends of the President attempted to revive the applause, 
but met with a miserable failure. Strong men shuddered, women 
fainted, and Madame Barrios left the theatre, unable to control her 
emotion. The play was suspended ; the audience departed to dis¬ 
cuss the omen, and everybody agreed that Barrios’s coup-d'ttat would 

The President left the city at the head of his army for the fron¬ 
tier of San Salvador, his wife accompanying him a few miles on the 
way. A few days later a small detachment of the Guatemalan 
army, commanded by a son of Barrios, started out on a scouting ex¬ 
pedition, and were attacked by an overwhelming force of Salvadori¬ 
ans. The young captain was killed by the first volley, and his com¬ 
pany stampeded. Leaving his body on the field, they retreated in 
confusion to headquarters. When Barrios heard of the disaster he 
leaped upon his horse, called upon his cavalry to follow him, and 
started in pursuit of the men who had killed his son. The Salvadori¬ 
ans, expecting to be pursued, lay in ambush, and the Dictator, while 
galloping down the road at the head of a squadron of cavalry, was 



picked off by a sharpshooter and died instantly. His men took his 
body and that of his son, which was found by the road side, and 
carried them back to camp. A courier was despatched to the near¬ 
est telegraph station with a message to the capital conveying the sad 
news. It was not unexpected. Since the omen at the theatre no 
one had expected the Dictator would return alive. All but himself 
had lost confidence, and it transpired that even he went to the front 
with a presentiment of disaster, for among his papers was found this 
remarkable will, written a few moments before his departure : 

"The Will of Barrios. 

“ I am in full campaign, and make my declaration as a soldier. 

"My legitimate wife is Donna Francisca Apaucio vel Vecusidarie de Quezal- 

"During our marriage we have had seven children, as follows : Elaine, Luz, 
Jos£, Maria, Carlos, Rufino, and Francisca. 

" Donna Francisca is the sole owner of all my properties and interest whatso¬ 
ever. She will know how much to give our children when they arrive at maturity, 
and I have full confidence in her. 

" She may give to my nephew, Luciano Barrios, in two or three instalments, 
$25,000, for the kindness which this nephew has rendered to me, and which I doubt 
not he will continue to render to my wife, Donna Francisca. 

" She will continue to provide for the education of Antonio Barrios, who is 
now in the United States of America. 

" She is empowered to demand and collect all debts due to me in this country 
and abroad. The overseers and administrators of my properties, wherever they 
may be, shall account only to Donna Francisca, or the person she may name. 

“ It is five o’clock in the morning. At this moment I start forth to Jutiapa, 
where the army is. 

“J. Rufino Barrios. 

“Monday, March 23, 1885.” 

The attempt to reunite the republic ended with the death of 
the Dictator, and the whole country was thrown into confusion. In 
Guatemala City anarchy prevailed. The enemies of Barrios did not 
fear a dead lion, and kicked his body. They came out in force, 
stoned his house, and his beautiful wife was forced to seek the pro¬ 
tection of the United States Minister. The latter’s secretary es¬ 
corted her to San Jos6, where she took a steamer for San Francisco, 
and she has since resided in New York. 

William Eleroy Curtis. 


The chord of pastoral elegy, first struck by Bion in his Lament 
for Adonis, is one which through varying expansion and modifica¬ 
tion has kept its resonance down to the present day. The Lament 
for Bion by Moschus, the Lycidas of Milton, the Adonais of Shelley, 
the Tkyrsis of Arnold, the Ave atque Vale of Swinburne, these all 
have their origin, more or less directly, in that brief and simple idyl. 
My purpose here is to seek out the relations existing between these 
poems, and to endeavor to indicate the development of this species 
of verse. Neither the purely subjective Ln Memoriam, nor the im¬ 
personal revery of the Elegy in a Country Churchyard falls within 
my scope, as neither adopts any part of the conventional framework 
upon which the pastoral elegy relies. 

The form taught by Bion has shown itself adaptable and expan¬ 
sive. For the expression of a grief which is personal, but not too 
passionately so, and which is permitted to utter itself in panegy¬ 
ric, it has proved exactly fitted. A rapid inter-transition between 
subjective and objective treatment, a breadth of appeal, a reliance 
upon general sympathy, these are characteristics which endow this 
species of verse with its wonderful flexibility and freshness. The 
lines of its structure, moreover, admit of an almost indefinite degree 
of decoration, without an appearance of over-abundant and extrin¬ 
sic detail, or departure from the unity of the design. 

In the Lament for Adonis the design is marked by extreme sim¬ 
plicity. The singer vibrates between musical reiterations of his own 
sorrow and reiterations of the sorrow of Aphrodite. Her grief, 
together with the beauty and the fate of Adonis, is dwelt upon with 
a wealth of emotional description, and reverted to again and' again, 
while in the intervals are heard lamentations from the rivers and 
the springs; from the hounds of the slain hunter, and the nymphs 
of his forest glades; from the mountains, the oak-trees, the flowers 
that redden for anguish; from the Loves who clip their locks, the 
Muses, the Graces, and Hymenaeus with benignant torch extinguished. 
The most passionate passage in the poem comes from the mouth of 
Aphrodite herself; and even this, dramatic as it is in expression, 



is held strictly within the bounds of self-conscious and melodious 
utterance. Throbbing irregularly through the verse, as a peal of 
bells borne in between the pauses of the wind, now complete, now 
fragmentary and vanishing, come the notes of the refrain, 

“ Woe, woe for Adonis, the Loves join in the lament.” 

When we turn to the poem of Moschus, we see what an expan¬ 
sion has been wrought in the slender pastoral, and not with loss but 
with gain in unity and artistic effect. The advance is toward a more 
definite purpose in the use of reiteration, a more orderly evolution, a 
wider vision, a more vivid and human interest, and a substitution of 
the particular for the general. Here, in place of undistinguished 
springs and rivers, we find the “ Dorian water,” the fountain Arethusa, 
and Meles, “ most melodious of streams.” It is not the flowers in 
general that redden in their anguish, but each manifests its pain in 
its own fashion : the roses and the wind-flowers blush to a deeper 
crimson ; the hyacinth breathes more poignantly the ai ai upon its 
petals, and the trees throw down their young fruit. It is no longer to 
the unnamed array of nymphs that appeal is made, but with far more 
potent spell to Galatea herself, to the Nymphs Bistonian, to the 
damsels of Aiagria. The heifers reject their pasture, the ewes with¬ 
hold their milk, and the honey has dried up for sorrow in the wax. 
Apollo himself is added to the mourners, with the Satyrs and the 
Fauns. The illustrious among cities bring their tribute, Ascra 
lamenting more than for her Hesiod, Mitylene than for her Sappho ; 
and Syracuse grieves through the lips of her Theocritus. The night¬ 
ingales of Sicily join their song, and the Strymonian swans, and the 
bird of Memnon, the halycon, “ the swallow on the long ranges of 
the hills,” and in the sea the music-loving dolphins. Finally the poet, 
recalling the descent of Orpheus to Hades, and how his song there 
sped him, laments that he himself cannot travel the same path on like 
errand, and dreams that Persephone were already half won to grant 
his suit, seeing that she, too, is Sicilian, and skilled in the Dorian 
song. All this is development along the same lines as those laid 
down in the Lament for Adonis. The method is still almost wholly 
emotional and pictorial, but two or three new elements begin to hint 
their advent. The strain of philosophical meditation, later to assume 
a preponderating influence in this species of verse, here begins in a 
passage of exquisite loveliness, which is expanded from a single 
phrase in the Lament for Adonis. In the latter poem Cypris cries out 



to Persephone, “ All lovely things drift down to thee.” Observe 
what this becomes in the hands of Moschus: * 

" Ah me, when the mallows wither in the garden, and the green parsley, and 
the curled tendrils of the anise, on a later day they live again, and spring in 
another year, but we men, we the great and mighty and wise, when once we 
have died, in the hollow earth we sleep, gone down into silence ; a right long, 
and endless, and unawakening sleep.” 

A new note, too, is that touched in the references to Homer, wherein 
a swift comparison is instituted between the epic and the idyl, and 
their respective sources of inspiration; and here is the first appear¬ 
ance of the autobiographic tendency, which in some later poems of 
the class becomes a prominent feature. In the matter of direct 
verbal borrowing Moschus seems to owe but little to his master, his 
indebtedness in this respect being as nothing in comparison with 
that of Milton and Shelley. The refrain (“Begin,Ye Sicilian Muses, 
begin the dirge ”), as used by Moschus, has not quite the same func¬ 
tions as those allotted it by Bion. It is used with greater frequency 
and regularity, as a sort of solemnly sweet response marking off stan- 
zaic divisions, and in its substance is not so interwoven with the 
body of the song. 

In Lycidas the same lines are pursued through the greater por¬ 
tion of the poem. The personal note is intensified, which follows 
from the fact that the lament is for a friend no less than for a 
fellow-singer. The conventional disguise of the art of song under 
the homely shepherd’s trade is more insisted upon ; it becomes now 
the basis of every detail, and the parallel is carried out to its limits. 
A higher degree of complexity is attained, but not without a loss in 
congruity and in clearness. The verse is not less responsive to the 
touch of external nature, but it has acquired a new susceptibility to 
the influences of learning, of morals, and of the tumultuous questions 
of the day. It cannot refrain from polemics, it allegorizes on the 
smallest excuse, and it indulges in an almost pedantic amount of 
abstruse and remote allusion. It is scholastic poetry ; but informed, 
nevertheless, with such imaginative vigor, filled with such sympathy 
for nature, attuned to such sonorous harmonies, and modulated to 
cadences so subtle, as to surpass in all but simplicity the distinctive 
excellences of its models. The treatment is still frankly objective, 
transparently free from introspection, the atmosphere and coloring 

* The extracts from Bion and Moschus are generally, as in this case, given in the words 
of Mr. Andrew Lang’s admirable translation. 



of a noonday vividness, the descriptions drawn at first-hand from 
that affluent landscape which the poet’s early manhood knew at 
Horton. As in its predecessors, the objects of familiar nature are 
appealed to, the “ Dorian water ” and other classic streams, the dol¬ 
phins, the Nymphs, the Muses, and Apollo himself ; but, by a strange 
anomaly, St. Peter, too, comes amid the pagan train, and pronounces 
a scathing diatribe against the opponents of Milton’s theological 
school of thought. This is a lesson learned of Dante, perhaps. And 
it is quite in keeping with later mediaeval methods that the passage of 
most exalted spirituality which the poem affords should be placed 
on the lips of Apollo. An element which here makes its first appear¬ 
ance in the pastoral elegy is discovered in the lofty rejoicing of the 
conclusion. The note of hope was wanting in the pagan elegies, so 
their sorrow deepens to the end. But Lycidas is the expression of 
a confident immortality, and hence the temporal grief which it be¬ 
wails passes at length into a solemn gladness of consolation. 

In regard to style Milton has not conformed closely to his origi¬ 
nals. The departure is from a direct to an indirect utterance, the 
singer being, ostensibly, not the poet himself, but the “ uncouth 
swain ” depicted in that matchless bit of purest Greek objectivity 
which, in terminating the poem, appears to throw it out into clear 
relief. The refrain has dwindled to nothing more than the unobtru¬ 
sive repetition of a few phrases. And for the fluent, direct, pellucid 
Sicilian hexameters we have the measured and delaying pace of the 
Iambic pentameter. The measure is one of high and stately loveli¬ 
ness, but bearing little resemblance to the line of Bion and Moschus. 

When we come to the Adonais, we find ourselves in another 
atmosphere. Hitherto our path has lain along the valleys and the 
gentle hill-slopes, where nature is all fertility and peace, where the 
winds are soft, the waters slow-winding, the meadows thick with 
flowers, and the sunshine heavy with fragrance. We have been in the 
region of the pipe, the safe flocks, the “ azure pillars of the hearth.” 
However much the strain may have been laden with allegory and 
with symbol, yet the joys recalled, the griefs lamented, the hopes 
and desires rehearsed, have all been definite, not only measurable 
but measured and stated. It is with material conceptions that the 
singer has been occupied. But Shelley hurries us out upon the 
heights, where the air is keen and stimulating, and the horizon so 
vast that the gaze acquires a wide-eyed eagerness; where the more 
minute details of life are lost as the shifting pageantry of night and 



day is unrolled in dazzling nearness. The coloring is transparent, of 
a celestial purity, and ordered in strangely vivid contrasts, and, in¬ 
stead of a pastoral stillness, we have the unrest of winds, the aspira¬ 
tion of flame. 

The many points of resemblance between the Adonais and its 
models, though obvious enough to force themselves upon the most 
casual attention, are yet far more superficial than those existing be¬ 
tween the models themselves. So extraneous indeed is the likeness, 
that I am tempted to illustrate it by the comparison of a seed of 
grain which is easily recognizable after its germination because it 
carries with it, upon its expanding seed-leaf, the remnants of its husk. 
To identify it is a simple matter, but its transformation is none the 
less complete. In Adonais we find verbal borrowings so ingenuous 
and so abundant that the censor of literary morals has not breath 
enough to cry “ stop thief." In truth, to change the figure, Shelley 
has not scrupled to appropriate the gold of his predecessors as a set¬ 
ting for his diamonds. In place of the Paphian goddess we now find 
Urania, the heavenly muse ; instead of the Loves and Nymphs, the 
Desires, Adorations, and Dreams of the dead poet; and for the shep¬ 
herds, under thin disguise, come the great contemporary singers, 
Byron, Moore, Hunt, Shelley himself. After the fashion of the 
Loves in Bion, a Dream seeks to break her bow and shafts, while 
another clips her locks; as in Moschus, Echo feeds on the dead 
singer’s music, and the trees cast down their expanding buds; and 
one of Shelley’s Ministers of Thought is heard to cry, with voice not 
all unlike that of the shepherd in Lycidas, “ Our love, our hope, our 
sorrow is not dead.” These parallels, and others like them, are suf¬ 
ficiently emphatic, but their little importance is to be estimated 
from the fact that they might all be obliterated without destroying 
the unity of the poem, without even making serious inroad upon its 
highest and most distinctive beauties. The material conceptions of 
his predecessors Shelley has adopted, but he has made them sub¬ 
servient to an intensely spiritualized emotion and aspiration. The 
very imagery of the poem is to a great extent psychological in its 
origin, yet as vivid as if derived from the most familiar of physical 

The height of attainment in the Adonais is not reached until the 
poet’s passion of thought has carried him clear of his models. So 
long as his song was of loss and sorrow he was, perhaps, neither 
greater nor less than they, only more metaphysical, more fierce in 



invective, less serenely and temperately beautiful. But when he 
comes to speak of consolation, the theme, even in Lycidas, of only 
one brief passage, he straightway attains his full measure of inspi¬ 
ration. The whiteness to which this thought has kindled his im¬ 
agination transfuses nearly every line of the concluding seventeen 
stanzas. This consolation is based upon a sort of spiritualized pan¬ 
theism, vivified by a breath of the essence of Christian philosophy, 
and finds its fullest expression in stanzas xlii. and xlii: 

“ He is made one with Nature : there is heard 
His voice in all her music, from the moan 
Of thunder, to the voice of night’s sweet bird ; 

He is a presence to be felt and known 
In darkness and in light, from herb and stone, 

Spreading itself where’er that Power may move 
Which has withdrawn his being to its own ; 

Which wields the world with never wearied love, 

Sustains it from beneath, and kindles it above. 

“ He is a portion of the loveliness 
Which once he made more lovely : he doth bear 
His part, while the one Spirit’s plastic stress 
Sweeps through the dull dense world, compelling there, 

All new successions to the forms they wear ; 

Torturing th’ unwilling dross that checks its flight 
To its own likeness, as each mass may bear; 

And bursting in its beauty and its might 

From trees and beasts and men into the Heaven’s light.’’ 

The unsatisfying element in this faith is compensated for by 
the creed of personal immortality, of inextinguishable identity, ex¬ 
pressed in stanzas xliv., xlv., and xlvi.: 

“ The splendors of the firmament of time 
May be eclipsed, but are extinguished not; 

Like stars to their appointed height they climb, 

And death is a low mist which cannot blot 
The brightness it may veil.” 

" The inheritors of unfulfilled renown 
Rose from their thrones, built beyond mortal thought, 
Far in the Unapparent, 

Oblivion as they rose shrank like a thing reproved.” 


•• And many more, whose names on Earth are dark, 

But whose transmitted effluence cannot die 
So long as fire outlives the parent spark, 

Rose, robed in dazzling immortality.” 



Then follows an inspired digression describing the loveliness of 
that last resting-place of the mortal vesture of Adonais—a loveliness 
suggesting the dead poet’s own utterance: “ I have been half in love 
with easeful Death.” And the poem concludes with a majesty which 
is thus admirably analyzed by Mr. Symonds: 

“Yet again the thought of Death as the deliverer, the revealer, the mysta- 
gogue, through whom the soul of man is reunited to the spirit of the universe, re¬ 
turns ; and on this solemn note the poem closes. The symphony of exaltation 
which had greeted the passage of Adonais into the eternal world is here subdued 
to a grave key, as befits the mood of one whom mystery and mourning still oppress 
on earth. Yet even in the somewhat less than jubilant conclusion we feel that 
highest of all Shelley’s qualities, the liberation of incalculable energies, the eman¬ 
cipation and expansion of a force within the soul, victorious over circumstance, 
exhilarated and elevated by contact with such hopes as make a feebler spirit 
tremble. ” 

“ The breath whose might I have invoked in song 
Descends on me ; my spirit’s bark is driven 
Far from the shore, far from the trembling throng 
Whose sails were never to the tempest given ; 

The massy earth and sphered skies are riven ! 

I am borne darkly, fearfully, afar ; 

Whilst burning through the inmost veil of Heaven, 

The soul of Adonais, like a star, 

Beacons from the abode where the Eternal are.” 

The Thyrsis of Mr. Arnold, in temper one of the most modern 
of poems, maintains, nevertheless, a closer relationship than does 
the Adonais to the work of the Sicilian elegists. With a far less 
degree of external resemblance, it makes at the same time a less 
marked spiritual departure from the field and scope of its models. 
The conventional metonymy of shepherd and pipe is still adhered 
to consistently; the names of Corydon and Daphnis still figure. 
But the heterogeneous train of mourners is gone ; the solitary singer 
makes no call upon Nymphs or Loves, Dreams or Desires, Deities or 
the phenomena of Nature to assist his sorrow. The use of iteration 
still remains, much modified; but the refrain has vanished utterly; 
and, save for stanzas ix. and x., which read almost like an adorned 
and expanded paraphrase of the conclusion of the epitaph on Bion, 
there is scarcely an instance of adaptation or verbal borrowing. So 
much for external likeness and contrast. But a profound internal 
resemblance makes itself felt, I think, in a sense of something 
approaching finality in the mourner’s loss. There is, indeed, in 
Thyrsis a search made for consolation, but the result of the search is 
inadequate and slight. This consolation excites no such melodious 


3 6 7 

fervor as does that found by Milton and by Shelley. Indeed, it 
seems scarcely to win the thorough confidence of even Mr. Arnold 

“ Let in thy voice a whisper often come 

To chase fatigue and fear: 

Why faintest thou ? I wander'd till I died. 

Roam on ! The light we sought is shining still. 

Dost thou ask proof ? Our tree yet crowns the hill, 

Our Scholar travels yet the loved hill-side." 

The proof is scarcely such as to carry conviction, and the faith it 
upholds is somewhat thin and pale after the creeds of Lycidas and 
the Adonais. Nevertheless, though cold, it is a high and severe 
philosophy which informs the Thyrsis : 

“ A fugitive and gracious light he seeks, 

Shy to illumine ; and I seek it too. 

This does not come with houses or with gold, 

With place, with honor, and a flattering crew ; 

’Tis not in the world's market bought and sold— 

But the smooth-slipping weeks 
Drop by, and leave its seeker still untired ; 

Out of the heed of mortals he is gone, 

He wends unfollowed, he must house alone ; 

Yet on he fares, by his own heart inspired.” 

This goes beyond any motive or aspiration expressed by the Sici¬ 
lian singers. But the philosophy lightly suggested in stanza viii. is 
not far from identical with that of the passage already quoted from 
Moschus; and the elysium claimed for Thyrsis (“ within a folding 
of the Apennine,” to hearken “ the immortal chants of old ”) is not 
fundamentally different from that to which Adonis and Bion were 
snatched reluctant away. 

I have spoken of the modern temper of the Thyrsis. This is to 
be found, I think, in its underlying scepticism, and in a profound 
consciousness of the weariness and the meagre rewards of struggle. 
The heroic and stimulating element in the poem consists in the lofty 
courage with which this depressing consciousness is held at bay, 
that it exert not its demoralizing influence on life and conduct. 
Another peculiarly modern quality is that which Mr. Hutton de¬ 
scribes as a “ craving after a reconciliation between the intellect of 
man and the magic of nature.” The keen and ever-present percep¬ 
tion of this magic of nature is the origin of that which constitutes 
perhaps the crowning excellence of the work, its faithful and yet 
not slavish realism, its minute yet inspired depictions. This is the 



sort of realism, interpretive, selective, imaginative, which forms the 
basis of all the most enduring and satisfying verse. In its most se¬ 
lective phase it pervades stanza vii., which furnishes an interesting 
parallel to the exquisite flower-passage in Lycidas. 

A minor difference between the Thyrsis and its predecessors, yet 
a difference reaching far in its effects, is to be found in the quality 
of its color. This has little of the flooding sunlight and summer 
luxuriance to which Moschus and Milton introduced us; it has none 
of the iridescent and auroral splendors which steep the verse of 
Shelley. It is light, cool, and pure ; most temperate in the use of 
strong tints, and matchless for its tenderness and its exquisite deli¬ 
cacy of gradation. This coloring contributes appreciably to what I 
take to be the central impression which the Thyrsis aims to convey 
—the impression of a serious and lofty calm, the result, not of joy 
attained, but of clear-sighted and unsanguine endurance. 

Arriving at Mr. Swinburne’s Ave atque Vale , we seem to have 
rounded a cycle. While structural resemblances have all but va¬ 
nished, in substance of consolation we stand once more where Bion 
stood, and Moschus. In motive there is a vast descent from the 
Thyrsis to this poem. No longer is there any high endurance to 
spiritualize the hopelessness of the mourner, and hold him above the 
reach of despair. Nothing but the negative prospect of a sort of 
perpetual coma, or, at most, the sensuous solace of a palely luxu¬ 
rious peace. 

“ It is enough ; the end and the beginning 

Are one thing to thee, who art past the end. 

O hand unclasped of unbeholden friend ! 

For thee no fruit to pluck, no palms for winning, 

No triumph and no labor and no lust, 

Only dead yew-leaves and a little dust. 

O quiet eyes wherein the light saith nought, 

Whereto the day is dumb, nor any night 
With obscure finger silences your sight, 

Nor in your speech the sudden soul speaks thought, 

Sleep, and have sleep for light." 

But while motive lessened and conception lowered, execution 
was rising to an almost unsurpassable height. With the exception 
of the Lament for Bion , no one of the poems we have been consider¬ 
ing can equal this in perfection of structure. In unity of effect, in 
strong continuity of impulse, it seems to me unexcelled. Never 
varying from its majestic restraint, it achieves such matchless verbal 
music as that of stanza ii., such serious breadth of imagination as is 


exemplified in stanza vi., and such haunting cadences of regret as 
these lines from stanza ix. express: 

“Yet with some fancy, yet with some desire, 

Dreams pursue death as winds a flying fire, 

Our dreams pursue our dead, and do not find. 

Still, and more swift than they, the thin flame flies, 

The low light fails us in elusive skies, 

Still the foiled earnest ear is deaf, and blind 
Are still the eluded eyes.” 

Of what may be called the machinery of mourning, with which 
the Sicilians set out so well equipped, we find here little remaining. 
It has nearly all seemed superfluous to the later elegist. A remnant 
appears in stanza xi., and still 

“ bending us-ward with memorial urns 
The most high Muses that fulfil all ages 

Still Apollo is present, and 

“ Compassionate, with sad and sacred heart, 

Mourns thee of many his children the last dead.” 

And Aphrodite keeps place among the mourners ; but she is no 
longer either the spiritual Venus Urania, or the gladly fair and sanely 
passionate Cytherea of the Greeks. She has become that bastard 
conception of the Middle Ages, the Venus of the hollow hill, “ a 
ghost, a bitter and luxurious god.” 

To conclude with a brief recapitulation : it would appear that the 
pastoral elegy, originated by Bion, reached its complete structural 
development in the hands of Moschus; and that, in its inner mean¬ 
ing, the work of these two poets was adequate to the spiritual stature 
of their day. The Lycidas was an inspired adaptation of like mate¬ 
rials to the needs of a more complex period. In the Adonais we 
find the structure undergoing a violent expansion, and a new and 
vast departure made in the sphere of conception and motive. In 
hopefulness, in consolation, in exalted thought, in uplifting emotion, 
Shelley’s poem occupies the pinnacle of achievement for this species 
of verse. In the Thyrsis we see structural conformity diminishing, 
but at the same time a reapproach to the religious attitude of the 
Greek originals. The elements of spirituality and hope have de¬ 
clined, but to support us till the coming of “ the morning-less and 
unawakening sleep,” some inward consolation yet remains, in a 

spirit akin to that of the best wisdom of the Greek philosophies. 



In this poem we discover, too, if not the complete contemporary 
adequacy of the work of Bion and Moschus, nevertheless a most 
sympathetic expression of the intellectual tendencies of the period. 

Finally, in the Ave atque Vale , with a structural resemblance re¬ 
duced to its lowest terms, we find a remarkable return to the spirit 
of the laments for Adonis and Bion. To the sorrow of this elegy 
there is no mitigation suggested. The goal it points to is but a 
form of annihilation, or such gray pretence of immortality as that of 
the ghosts in the abode of Hades. Nevertheless, though without 
spiritual sincerity or a stimulating faith, the poem is effectually re¬ 
deemed from hollowness, and endowed, I believe, with a perpetual 
interest, by the sincerity of its lyric impulse, its passion for beauty, 
its imagination, and its flawless art. 

Charles G. D. Roberts. 


It was on the margin of Pond Brook, just back of Uncle Eben’s, 
that I first saw Fishin’ Jimmy. It was early June, and we were 
again at Franconia, that peaceful little village among the northern 

The boys, as usual, were tempting the trout with false fly or real 
worm, and I was roaming along the bank, seeking spring flowers, and 
hunting early butterflies and moths. Suddenly there was a little 
plash in the water at the spot where Ralph was fishing, the slender 
tip of his rod bent, I heard a voice cry out, “ Strike him, sonny, 
strike him ! ” and an old man came quickly but noiselessly through 
the bushes just as Ralph’s line flew up into space, with, alas, no 
shining, spotted trout upon the hook. The new-comer was a spare, 
wiry man of middle height, with a slight stoop in his shoulders, a 
thin brown face, and scanty gray hair. He carried a fishing-rod, and 
had some small trout strung on a forked stick in one hand. A sim¬ 
ple, homely figure, yet he stands out in memory just as I saw him 
then, no more to be forgotten than the granite hills, the rushing 
streams, the cascades of that north country I love so well. 

We fell into talk at once, Ralph and Waldo rushing eagerly into 
questions about the fish, the bait, the best spots in the stream, 
advancing their own small theories, and asking advice from their 
new friend. For friend he seemed even in that first hour, as he 
began simply, but so wisely, to teach my boys the art he loved. 
They are older now, and are no mean anglers, I believe, but they 
look back gratefully to those brookside lessons, and acknowledge 
gladly their obligations to Fishin’ Jimmy. But it is not of these 
practical teachings I would now speak; rather of the lessons of 
simple faith, of unwearied patience, of self-denial and cheerful endu¬ 
rance which the old man himself seemed to have learned, strangely 
enough, from the very sport so often called cruel and murderous. 
Incomp<iphensible as it may seem, to his simple intellect the fisher¬ 
man’s art was a whole system of morality, a guide for every-day life, 
an education, a gospel. It was all any poor mortal man, woman, or 
child needed in this world to make him or her happy, useful, good. 



At first we scarcely realized this, and wondered greatly at certain 
things he said, and the tone in which he said them. I remember at 
that first meeting I asked him, rather carelessly, “ Do you like fish¬ 
ing?” He did not reply at first ; then he looked at me with those 
odd, limpid, green-gray eyes of his which always seemed to reflect 
the clear waters of mountain streams, and said very quietly : “You 
wouldn’t ask me if I liked my mother—or my wife.” And he always 
spoke of his pursuit as one speaks of something very dear, very 
sacred. Part of his story I learned from others, but most of it from 
himself, bit by bit, as we wandered together day by day in that 
lovely hill-country. As I tell it over again I seem to hear the rush 
of mountain streams, the “ sound of a going in the tops of the trees,” 
the sweet, pensive strain of white-throat sparrow, and the plash of 
leaping trout; to see the crystal-clear waters pouring over granite 
rock, the wonderful purple light upon the mountains, the flash and 
glint of darting fish, the tender green of-early summer in the north 

Fishin’ Jimmy’s real name was James Whitcher. He was born 
in the Franconia Valley, and his whole life had been passed there. 
He had always fished ; he could not remember when or how he 
learned the art. From the days when, a tiny, bare-legged urchin in 
ragged frock, he had dropped his piece of string with its bent pin at 
the end into the narrow, shallow brooklet behind his father’s house, 
through early boyhood’s season of roaming along Gale River, wad¬ 
ing Black Brook, rowing a leaky boat on Streeter’s or Mink Pond, 
through youth, through manhood, on and on into old age, his life 
had apparently been one long day’s fishing—an angler’s holiday. 
Had it been only that? He had not cared for books, or school, and 
all efforts to tie him down to study were unavailing. But he knew 
well the books of running brooks. No dry botanical text-book or 
manual could have taught him all he now knew of plants and flowers 
and trees. 

He did not call the yellow spatterdock Nuphar advena, but he 
knew its large leaves of rich green, where the black bass or pickerel 
sheltered themselves from the summer sun, and its yellow balls on 
stout stems, around which his line so often twined and twisted, or in 
which the hook caught, not to be jerked out till the long, green, 
juicy stalk itself, topped with globe of greenish gold, came up from 
its wet bed. He knew the sedges along the bank with their nodding 
tassels and stiff lance-like leaves, the feathery grasses, the velvet 



moss upon the wet stones, the sea-green lichen on boulder or tree- 
trunk. There, in that corner of Echo Lake, grew the thickest patch 
of pipewort, with its small, round, grayish-white, mushroom-shaped 
tops on long, slender stems. If he had styled it Eriocaulon septan- 
gulare , would it have shown a closer knowledge of its habits than 
did his careful avoidance of its vicinity, his keeping line and flies at 
a safe distance, as he muttered to himself, “ Them pesky butt’ns 
agin! ” He knew by sight the bur-reed of mountain ponds, with its 
round, prickly balls strung like big beads on the stiff, erect stalks; 
the little water-lobelia, with tiny purple blossoms, springing from the 
waters of lake and pond. He knew, too, all the strange, beautiful 
under-water growth: bladderwort in long, feathery garlands, pellu¬ 
cid water-weed, quillwort in stiff little bunches with sharp-pointed 
leaves of olive-green, all so seldom seen save by the angler whose 
hooks draw up from time to time the wet, lovely tangle. I remem¬ 
ber the amusement with which a certain well-known botanist, who 
had journeyed to the mountains in search of a little plant, found 
many years ago near Echo Lake, but not since seen, heard me pro¬ 
pose to consult Fishin’ Jimmy on the subject. But I was wiser than 
he knew. Jimmy looked at the specimen brought as an aid to iden¬ 
tification. It was dry and flattened, and as unlike a living, growing 
plant as are generally the specimens from an herbarium. But it 
showed the awl-shaped leaves, and thread-like stalk with its tiny 
round seed-vessels, like those of our common shepherd’s-purse, and 
Jimmy knew it at once. “ There’s a dreffle lot o’ that peppergrass 
out in deep water there, jest where I ketched the big pick’ril,” he 
said quietly. “ I seen it nigh a foot high, an’ it’s jucier an’ livin’er 
than them dead sticks in your book.” At our request he accom¬ 
panied the unbelieving botanist and myself to the spot, and there, 
looking down through the sunlit water, we saw great patches of that 
rare and long-lost plant of the cruciferce known to science as Subu- 
laria aquatica. For forty years it had hidden itself away, growing 
and blossoming and casting abroad its tiny seeds, in its watery home, 
unseen, or at least unnoticed, by living soul except by the keen, soft, 
limpid eyes of Fishin’ Jimmy. And he knew the trees and shrubs 
so well; the alder and birch from which as a boy he cut his simple, 
pliant pole; the shad-blow and iron-wood (he called them, respec¬ 
tively, sugarplum and hard-hack) which he used for the more ambi¬ 
tious rods of maturer years; the mooseberry, wayfaring-tree, hobble- 
bush, or triptoe—it has all these names—with stout, trailing branches 



over which he stumbled as he hurried through the woods and under¬ 
brush in the darkening twilight. 

He had never heard of entomology. Gu6n6e, Htibner, and 
Fabricius were unknown names, but he could have told these wor¬ 
thies many new things. Did they know just at what hour the trout 
ceased leaping at dark fly or moth, and could see only in the dim 
light the ghostly white miller ? Did they know the comparative 
merits, as a tempting bait, of grasshopper, cricket, spider, or wasp; 
and could they, with bits of wool, tinsel, and feather, copy the real 
dipterous, hymenopterous, or orthopterous insect ? And the birds: 
he knew them as do few ornithologists, by sight, by sound, by little 
ways and tricks of their own, known only to themselves and him. 
The white-throat sparrow with its sweet, far-reaching chant, the 
hermit-thrush with its chime of bells, in the calm summer twilight, 
the vesper-sparrow that ran before him as he crossed the meadow, 
or sang for hours, as he fished the stream, its unvarying, but scarcely 
monotonous little strain ; the cedar-bird with its smooth brown coat 
of Quaker simplicity, and speech as brief and simple as Quaker yea 
or nay; the winter-wren sending out his strange, lovely, liquid war¬ 
ble from the high, rocky side of Cannon Mountain ; the bluebird of 
that early spring, so welcome to the winter-weary dwellers in that 
land of ice and snow, as he 

“ from the bluer deeps 
Lets fall a quick prophetic strain,” 

of summer, of streams freed and flowing again, of waking, darting, 
eager fish ; all these were friends, familiar, tried, and true to Fishin’ 
Jimmy. The cluck and coo of the cuckoo, the bubbling song of bobo¬ 
link in buff and black, the watery trill of the stream-loving swamp- 
sparrow, the whispered whistle of the stealthy, darkness-haunting 
whippoorwill, the gurgle and gargle of the cow-bunting, he knew each 
and all, better than did Audubon, Nuttall, or Wilson. But he never 
dreamed that even the tiniest of his little favorites bore in the scien¬ 
tific world, far away from that quiet mountain nest, such names as 
Troglodytus hiemalis or Melospisa palustris. He could tell you, too, 
of strange, shy creatures rarely seen except by the early-rising, late- 
fishing angler, in quiet, lonesome places : the otter, muskrat, and 
mink of ponds and lakes—rival fishers, who bore off prey sometimes 
from under his very eyes—field-mice in meadow and pasture, blind, 
burrowing moles, prickly hedgehogs, brown hares, and social, curious 



Sometimes he saw deer, in the early morning or in the dusk of 
the evening, as they came to drink at the lake shore, and looked at 
him with big, soft eyes not unlike his own. Sometimes a shaggy 
bear trotted across his path and hid himself in the forest, or a sharp¬ 
eared fox ran barking through the bushes. He loved to tell of these 
things to us who cared to listen, and I still seem to hear his voice 
saying in hushed tones, after a story of woodland sight or sound: 
“ Nobody don’t see ’em but fishermen. Nobody don’t hear ’em but 

But it was of another kind of knowledge he oftenest spoke, and 
of which I shall try to tell you, in his own words as nearly as pos¬ 

First let me say that if there should seem to be the faintest tinge 
of irreverence in aught I write, I tell my story badly. There was no 
irreverence in Fishin’ Jimmy. He possessed a deep and profound 
veneration for all things spiritual and heavenly ; but it was the vene¬ 
ration of a little child, mingled as is that child’s with perfect confi¬ 
dence and utter frankness. And he used the dialect of the country 
in which he lived. 

“ As I was tellin’ ye,” he said, “ I allers loved fishin’ an’ knowed 
’twas the best thing in the hull airth ; I knowed it larnt ye more 
about creeters an’ yarbs an’ stuns an’ water than books could tell 
ye ; I knowed it made folks patienter an’ common-senser an’ weather- 
wiser, an’ cuter gen’ally ; gin ’em more fac’lty than all the school 
lamin’ in creation. I knowed it was more fillin’ than vittles, more 
rousin’ than whiskey, more soothin’ than lodlum ; I knowed it cooled 
ye off when ye was het, an’ het ye when ye was cold ; I knowed all 
that, o’ course—any fool knows it. But—will ye bleve it ?—I was 
more’n twenty-one year old, a man growed, ’fore I foun’ out why 
’twas that away. Father an’ mother was Christian folks, good out- 
an’-out Calv’nist Baptists from over east’n way. They fetched me 
up right, made me go to meetin’ an’ read a chapter every Sunday, 
an’say a hymn Sat’day night a’ter washin’; an’ I useter say my 
prayers mos’ nights. I wa’n’t a bad boy as boys go. But nobody 
thought o’ tellin’ me the one thing, jest the one single thing that’d 
ha’ made all the diffunce. I knowed about God, an’ how he made 
me an’ made the airth, an’ everything, an’ once I got thinkin’ about 
that, an’ I asked my father if God made the fishes. He said ’course 
he did, the sea an’ all that in ’em is ; but somehow that didn’t seem to 
mean nothin’ much to me, an’ I lost my int’rist agin. An’ I read the 



Scripter account o’ Jonah an’ the big fish, an’ all that in Job about 
pullin’ out levi’thing with a hook an’ stickin’ fish spears in his head, 
an’ some parts in them queer books nigh the end o’ the ole Test’- 
ment about fish ponds an’ fish gates an’ fish pools, an’ how the fish¬ 
ers shall l’ment—everything I could pick out about fishin’ an’ sech ; 
but it didn’t come home to me ; ’twa’n’t my kind o’ fishin’ an’ I didn’t 
seem ter sense it. 

“ But one day—it’s more’n forty year ago now, but I rec’lect it 
same’s ’twas yest’day, an’ I shall rec’lect it forty thousand year from 
now if I’m ’round, an’ I guess I shall be, I heerd—suthin’—diffunt. 
I was down in the village one Sunday ; it wa’n’t very good fishin’— 
the streams was too full; an’ I thought I’d jest look into the meet- 
in’-house’s I went by. ’Twas the ole union meetin’-house, ye know, 
an’ they hadn’t got no reg’lar s’pply, an’ ye never knowed what kind 
ye’d hear, so ’twas kind o’ excitin’. 

“ ’Twas late, most ’leven o’clock, an’ the sarm’n had begun. 
There was a strange man a-preachin’, some one from over to the 
hotel. I never heerd his name, I never seed him from that day to 
this; but I knowed his face. Queer enough I’d seed him a-fishin’. 
I never knowed he was a min’ster, he didn’t look like one. He went 
about like a real fisherman, with ole clo’es, an’ an ole hat with hooks 
stuck in it, an’ big rubber boots, an’ he fished, reely fished, I mean— 
ketched ’em. I guess ’twas that made me liss’n a leetle sharper ’n 
us’al, for I never seed a fishin’ min’ster afore. Elder Jacks’n, he said 
’twas a sinf’l waste o’ time, an’ ole Parson Loomis he’d an idee it 
was cruel an’ onmarciful; so I thought I’d jest see what this man’d 
preach about, an’ I settled down to liss’n to the sarm’n. 

“ But there wa’n’t no sarm’n, not what I’d been raised to think 
was the on’y true kind. There wa’n’t no heads, no fustlys nor sec- 
’ndlys, nor fin’ly bruthrins, but the fust thing I knowed I was hearin’ 
a story, an’ ’twas a fishin’ story. ’Twas about Some One—I hadn’t 
the least idee then who ’twas, an’ how much it all meant—Some One 
that was dreffle fond o’ fishin’ and fishermen, Some One that sot 
everythin’ by the water, an’ useter go along by the lakes an’ ponds, 
an’ sail on ’em, an’ talk with the men that was fishin’. An’ how the 
fishermen all liked him, an’ asked his ’dvice, an’ done jest’s he telled 
’em about the likeliest places to fish ; an’ how they allers ketched 
more fer mindin’ him ; an’ how when he was a-preachin’ he wouldn’t 
go into a big meetin’-house an’ talk to rich folks all slicked up, but 
he’d jest go out in a fishin’ boat an’ ask the men to shove out a mite, 



an’ he’d talk to the folks on shore, the fishin’ folks, an’ their wives, 
an’ the boys an’ gals playin’ on the shore. An’ then, best o’ every¬ 
thin’, he telled how when he was a-choosin’ the men to go about 
with him an’ help him, an’ larn his ways so’s to come a’ter him, he 
fust o’ all picked out the men he’d seen every day fishin’; an’ mebbe 
fished with hisself, for he knowed ’em, an’ knowed he could trust 

“ An’ then he telled us about the day when this preacher come 
along by the lake—a dreffle sightly place, this min’ster said; he’d 
seed it hisself when he was trav’lin’ in them countries—an’ come 
acrost two men he knowed well; they was brothers, an’ they was 
a-fishin’. An’ he jest asked ’em in his pleasant-spoken, frien’ly 
way—there wa’n’t never sech a drawin’, takin’, lovin’ way with any 
one afore as this man had, the min’ster said—he jest asked ’em to 
come along with him; an’ they lay down their poles an’ their lines 
an’ everythin’, an’ jined him. An’ then he come along a spell 
further, an’ he see two boys out with their ole father, an’ they was 
settin’ in a boat an’ fixin’ up their tackle, an’ he asked ’em if they’d 
jine him too, an’ they jest dropped all their things, an’ left the 
ole man with the boat an’ the fish an’ the bait, an’ follered the 
preacher. I don’t tell it very good. I’ve read it an’ read it sence 
that; but I want to make ye see how it sounded to me, how I took 
it, as the min’ster telled it that summer day in Francony meetin’. 
Ye see I’d no idee who the story was about, the man put it so plain, 
in common kind o’ talk, without any come-to-passes an’ whuffers an’ 
thuffers, an’ I never conceited ’twas a Bible narr’tive. 

“An’ so fust thing I knowed I says to myself, ‘That’s the kind 
o’ teacher I want. If I could come acrost a man like that, I’d jest 
foller him too, through thick an’ thin.’ Well, I can’t put the rest on 
it into talk very good ; ’taint jest the kind o’ thing to speak on ’fore 
folks, even sech good friends as you. I aint the sort to go back on 
my word—fishermen aint, ye know—an’ what I’d said to myself ’fore 
I knowed who I was bindin’ myself to, I stuck to a’terwards when I 
knowed all about him. For ’taint for me to tell ye, who’ve got so 
much more lamin’ than me, that there was a dreffle lot more to that 
story than the fishin’ part. That lovin’, givin’ up, suff’rin’, dyin’ 
part, ye know it all yerself, an’ I can’t kinder say much on it, ’cept 
when I’m jest all by myself, or—long o’ him. 

“ That a’ternoon I took my ole Bible that I hadn’t read much 
sence I growed up, an’ I went out into the woods ’long the river, an’ 



’stid o’ fishin’ I jest sot down an’ read that hull story. Now ye 
know it yerself by heart, an’ ye’ve knowed it all yer born days, so ye 
can’t begin to tell how new an’ ’stonishin’ ’twas to me, an’ how find- 
in’ so much fishin’ in it kinder helped me unnerstan’ an’ bleeve it 
every mite, an’ take it right hum to me to toiler an’ live up to’s 
long’s I live an’ breathe. Did j’ever think on it, reely? I tell ye, 
his r’liging’s a fishin’ r’liging all through. His friends was fishin’ 
folks; his pulpit was a fishin’ boat, or the shore o’ the lake; he loved 
the ponds an’ streams; an’ when his d’sciples went out fishin’, if he 
didn’t go hisself with ’em, he’d go a’ter ’em, walkin’ on the water, to 
cheer ’em up an’ comfort ’em. 

“An’ he was allers ’round the water; for the story’ll say, ‘he 
come to the sea-shore,’ or ‘ he begun to teach by the sea-side,’ or 
agin, ‘ he entered into a boat,’ an’ ‘ he was in the stern o’ the boat, 

“ An’ he used fish in his mir’cles. He fed that crowd o’ folks on 
fish when they was hungry, bought ’em from a little chap on the 
shore. I’ve oft’n thought how dreffle tickled that boy must ’a’ been 
to have him take them fish. Mebbe they wa’n’t nothin’ but shiners, 
but the fust the little feller’d ever ketched, an’ boys sot a heap on 
their fust ketch. He was dreffle good to child’en, ye know. An’ 
who’d he come to a’ter he’d died an’ris agin ? Why, he come down 
to the shore ’fore daylight, an’ looked off over the pond to where his 
ole frien’s was a-fishin’. Ye see they’d gone out jest to quiet their 
minds an’ keep up their sperrits; ther’s nothin’ like fishin’ for that, 
ye know, an’ they’d been in a heap o’ trubble. When they was set- 
tin’ up the night afore, worryin’ an’ wond’rin’ an’ s’misin’ what was 
goin’ ter become on ’em without their master, Peter’d got kinder 
desprit, an’ he up an’ says in his quick way, says he, ‘ Anyway, I'm 
goin’ a-fishin’.’ An’ they all see the sense on it—any fisherman 
would—an’ they says, says they, ‘We’ll go ’long too.’ But they 
didn’t ketch anythin’. I suppose they couldn’t fix their minds on it, 
an’ everythin’ went wrong like. But when mornin’ come creepin’ up 
over the mountings, fust thin’ they knowed they see him on the 
bank, an’ he called out to ’em to know if they’d ketched anythin’. 
The water jest run down my cheeks when I heerd the min’ster tell 
that, an’ it kinder makes my eyes wet every time I think on’t. For 
’t seems’s if it might ’a’ been me in that boat, who heern that v’ice 
I loved so dreffle well, speak up agin so nat’ral from the bank there. 
An’ he eat some o’ their fish! O’ course he done it to sot their 



minds easy, to show ’em he wa’n’t quite a sperrit yit, but jest their 
own ole frien’ who’d been out in the boat with ’em so many, many 
times. But seems to me, jest the fac’ he done it kinder makes fish 
an’ fishin’ diffunt from any other thing in the hull airth. I tell ye 
them four books that gin his story is chock full o’ things that go 
right to the heart o’ fishermen. Nets, an’ hooks, an’ boats, an’ the 
shores, an’ the sea, an’ the mountings, Peter’s fishin’-coat, lilies, an’ 
sparrers, an’ grass o’ the fields, an’ all about the evenin’ sky bein’ red 
or lowerin’, an’ fair or foul weather. 

“ It’s an out-doors, woodsy, country story, ’sides bein’ the heav’n- 
liest one that was ever telled. I read the hull Bible, as a duty ye 
know. I read the epis’les, but somehow they don’t come home to 
me. Paul was a great man, a dreffie smart scholar, but he was raised 
in the city, I guess, an’ when I go from the gospils into Paul’s 
writin’s it’s like goin’ from the woods an’ hills an’ streams o’ Fran- 
cony into the streets of a big city like Concord or Manch’ster.” 

The old man did not say much of his after life and the fruits 
of this strange conversion, but his neighbors told us a great deal. 
They spoke of his unselfishness, his charity, his kindly deeds; told 
of his visiting the poor and unhappy, nursing the sick. They said 
the little children loved him, and every one in the village and 
for miles around trusted and leaned upon Fishin’ Jimmy. He 
taught the boys to fish, sometimes the girls too; and while learning 
to cast and strike, to whip the stream, they drank in knowledge of 
higher things, and came to know and love Jimmy’s “ fishin’ r’liging.” 
I remember they told me of a little French Canadian girl, a poor, 
wretched waif, whose mother, an unknown tramp, had fallen dead in 
the road near the village. The child, an untamed little heathen, was 
found clinging to her mother’s body in an agony of grief and rage, 
and fought like a tiger when they tried to take her away. A boy in 
the little group attracted to the spot ran away, with a child’s faith in 
his old friend, to summon Fishin’Jimmy. He came quickly, lifted 
the little savage tenderly, and carried her away. 

No one witnessed the taming process, but in a day or two the 
pair were seen together on the margin of Black Brook, each with a 
fish pole. Her dark face was bright with interest and excitement as 
she took her first lesson in the art of angling. She jabbered and 
chattered in her odd patois, he answered in broadest New England 
dialect, but the two quite understood each other, and though Jimmy 
said afterward that it was “ drefifle to hear her call the fish pois’n’,” 

38 o 


they were soon great friends and comrades. For weeks he kept and 
cared for the child, and when she left him for a good home in Beth¬ 
lehem, one would scarcely have recognized in the gentle, affection¬ 
ate girl the wild creature of the past. Though often questioned as 
to the means used to effect this change, Jimmy’s explanation seemed 
rather vague and unsatisfactory. “ ’Twas fishin’ done it,” he said ; 
“ on’y fishin’; it allers works. The Christian r’liging itself had to 
begin with fishin’, ye know.” 

But one thing troubled Fishin’ Jimmy. He wanted to be a 
“ fisher of men.” That was what the Great Teacher had promised 
he would make the fishermen who left their boats to follow him. 
What strange, literal meaning he attached to the terms, we could not 
tell. In vain we—especially the boys, whose young hearts had gone 
out in warm affection to the old man—tried to show him that he 
was, by his efforts to do good and make others better and happier, 
fulfilling the Lord’s directions. He could not understand it so. “ I 
allers try to think,” he said, “ that ’twas me in that boat when he 
come along. I make b’l’eve that it was out on Streeter’s Pond, an’ I 
was settin’ in the boat, fixin’ my lan’in’ net, when I see him on the 
shore. I think mebbe I’m that James—for that’s my given name, ye 
know, though they allers call me Jimmy—an’ then I hear him callin’ 
me ‘James, James.’ I can hear him jest’s plain sometimes, when 
the wind’s blowin’ in the trees, an’ I jest ache to up an’ foller him. 
But says he, ‘ I’ll make ye a fisher o’ men,’ an’ he aint done it. 
I’m waitin’; mebbe he’ll larn me some day.” 

He was fond of all living creatures, merciful to all. But his love 
for our dog Dash became a passion, for Dash was an angler. Who 
that ever saw him sitting in the boat beside his master, watching with 
eager eye, and whole body trembling with excitement, the line as it 
was cast, the flies as they touched the surface—who can forget old 
Dash? His fierce excitement at rise of trout, the efforts at self- 
restraint, the disappointment if the prey escaped, the wild exulta¬ 
tion if it was captured, how plainly—he who runs might read—were 
shown these emotions in eye, in ear, in tail, in whole quivering body ! 
What wonder that it all went straight to the fisher’s heart of Jimmy ! 
“ I never knowed afore they could be Christians,” he said, looking, 
with tears in his soft, keen eyes, at the every-day scene, and with no 
faintest thought of irreverence. “I never knowed it, but I’d give a 
stiffikit o’ membership in the orthodoxest church goin’ to that dog 



It is almost needless to say that as years went on Jimmy came to 
know many “ fishin’ min’sters,” for there are many of that ilk who 
love our mountain country, and seek it yearly. All these knew and 
loved the old man. And there were others who had wandered by 
that sea of Galilee, and fished in the waters of the Holy Land, and 
with them Fishin’ Jimmy dearly loved to talk. But his wonder was 
never-ending that in the scheme of evangelizing the world more 
use was not made of the “ fishin’ side ” of the story. “ Haint they 
ever tried it on them poor heathen ? ” he would ask earnestly of 
some clerical angler casting a fly upon the clear water of pond or 
brook. “ I should think ’twould ’a’ ben the fust thing they’d done. 
Fishin’ fust, an’ r’liging’s sure to foller. An’ it’s so easy; fur heath’n 
mostly r’sides on islands, don’t they ? So ther’s plenty o’ water, 
an’ o’ course ther’s fishin’; an’ oncet gin ’em poles an’ git ’em to 
work, an’ they’re out o’ mischief fur that day. They’d like it bet- 
ter’n cannib’ling, or cuttin’ out idles, or scratchin’ picters all over 
theirselves, an’ bimeby—not too suddent, ye know, to scare ’em—ye 
could begin on that story, an’ they couldn’t stan’ that, not a heath’n 
on ’em. Won’t ye speak to the ’Merican Board about it, an’ sen’ out 
a few fishin’ mishneries, with poles an’ lines an’ tackle gen’ally ? I’ve 
tried it on dreffle bad folks, an’ it allers done ’em good. But ”—so 
almost all his simple talk ended —“ I wish I could begin to be a fisher 
o’ men. I’m gettin’ on now, I’m nigh seventy, an’ I aint got much 
time, ye see.” 

One afternoon in July there came over Franconia Notch one 
of those strangely sudden tempests which sometimes visit that 
mountain country. It had been warm that day, unusually warm for 
that refreshingly cool spot; but suddenly the sky grew dark and 
darker, almost to blackness, there was roll of thunder and flash of 
lightning, and then poured down the rain—rain at first, but soon 
hail in large frozen bullets, which fiercely pelted any who ventured 
out-doors, rattled against the windows of the Profile House with 
sharp cracks like sounds of musketry, and lay upon the piazza in 
heaps like snow. And in the midst of the wild storm it was remem¬ 
bered that two boys, guests at our hotel, had gone up Mount La¬ 
fayette alone that day. They were young boys, unused to mountain 
climbing, and their friends were anxious. It was found that Dash 
had followed them ; and just as some one was to be sent in search 
of them, a boy from the stables brought the information that Fishin’ 
Jimmy had started up the mountain after them as the storm broke. 



“Said if he couldn’t be a fisher o’men, mebbe he knowed ’nuff to 
ketch boys,” went on our informant, seeing nothing more in the 
speech, full of pathetic meaning to us who knew him, than the idle 
talk of one whom many considered “lackin’.” Jimmy was old now, 
and had of late grown very feeble, and we did not like to think of 
him out in that wild storm. And now suddenly the lost boys them¬ 
selves appeared through the opening in the woods opposite the 
house, and ran in through the hail, now falling more quietly. They 
were wet, but no worse apparently for their adventure, though full 
of contrition and distress at having lost sight of the dog. He had 
rushed off into the woods some hours before, after a rabbit or hedge¬ 
hog, and had never returned. Nor had they seen Fishin’ Jimmy. 

As hours went by and the old man did not return, a search party 
was sent out, and guides familiar with all the mountain paths went 
up Lafayette to seek for him. It was nearly night when they at 
last found him, and the grand old mountains had put on those robes 
of royal purple which they sometimes assume at eventide. At 
the foot of a mass of rock, which looked like amethyst or wine-red 
agate in that marvellous evening light, the old man was lying, and 
Dash was with him. From the few faint words Jimmy could then 
gasp out, the truth was gathered. He had missed the boys, leaving 
the path by which they had returned, and while stumbling along in 
search of them, feeble and weary, he had heard far below a sound of 
distress. Looking down over a steep, rocky ledge, he had seen his 
friend and fishing comrade, old Dash, in sore trouble. Poor Dash! 
He never dreamed of harming his old friend, for he had a kind heart. 
But he was a sad coward in some matters, and a very baby when 
frightened and away from master and friends. So I fear he may 
have assumed the role of wounded sufferer when in reality he was 
but scared and lonesome. He never owned this afterward, and you 
may be sure we never let him know by word or look the evil he 
had done. Jimmy saw him holding up one paw helplessly and look¬ 
ing at him with wistful, imploring brown eyes ; heard his pitiful, 
whimpering cry for aid, and never doubted his great distress and 
peril. Was Dash not a fisherman? And fishermen, in Fishin’ 
Jimmy’s category, were always true and trusty. So the old man 
without a second’s hesitation started down the steep, smooth decline 
to the rescue of his friend. 

We do not know just how or where in that terrible descent he fell. 
To us who afterward saw the spot, and thought of the weak old 



man, chilled by the storm, exhausted by his exertions, and yet clam¬ 
bering down that precipitous cliff, made more slippery and treacher¬ 
ous by the sleet and hail still falling, it seemed impossible that he 
could have kept a foothold for an instant. Nor am I sure that he 
expected to save himself, and Dash too. But he tried. He was sadly 
hurt. I will not tell you of that. 

Looking out from the hotel windows through the gathering dark¬ 
ness, we who loved him—it was not a small group—saw a sorrowful 
sight. Flickering lights thrown by the lanterns of the guides came 
through the woods. Across the road, slowly, carefully, came strong 
men, bearing on a rough, hastily made litter of boughs the dear old 
man. All that could have been done for the most distinguished 
guest, for the dearest, best-beloved friend, was done for the gentle 
fisherman. We, his friends, and proud to style ourselves thus, were 
of different, widely separated lands, greatly varying creeds. Some 
were nearly as old as the dying man, some in the prime of manhood. 
There were youths, and maidens, and little children. But through 
the night we watched together. The old Roman bishop, whose calm, 
benign face we all know and love; the Churchman, ascetic in faith, 
but with the kindest, most indulgent heart when one finds it; the 
gentle old Quakeress with placid, unwrinkled brow and silvery hair ; 
Presbyterian, Methodist, and Baptist—we were all one that night. 
The old angler did not suffer—we were so glad of that! But he did 
not appear to know us, and his talk seemed strange. It rambled 
orr quietly, softly, like one of his own mountain brooks, babbling of 
green fields, of sunny summer days, of his favorite sport, and ah, of 
other things. But he was not speaking to us. A sudden, awed 
hush and thrill came over us as, bending to catch the low words, we 
all at once understood what only the bishop put into words as he 
said, half to himself, in a sudden, quickly broken whisper, “ God bless 
the man, he’s talking to his Master ! ” 

“Yes, sir, that’s so,” went on the quiet voice; “ ’twas on’y a dog 
sure ’nough; ’twa’n’t even a boy, as ye say, an’ ye ask me to be a 
fisher o’ men. But I haint had no chance for that, somehow ; mebbe 
I wa’n’t fit for’t. I’m on’y jest a poor old fisherman, Fishin’ Jimmy, 
ye know, sir. Ye useter call me James—no one else ever done it. On’y 
a dog? But he wa’n’t jest a common dog, sir; he was a fishin’ dog. 
I never seed a man love fishin’ mor’n Dash.” The dog was in the 
room, and heard his name. Stealing to the bedside, he put a cold 
nose into the cold hand of his old friend, and no one had the heart 



to take him away. The touch turned the current of the old man’s 
talk for a moment, and he was fishing again with his dog friend. 
“See ’em break, Dashy ! See ’em break! Lots on ’em to-day, aint 
they? Keep still, there’s a good dog, while I put on a diffunt fly. 
Don’t ye see they’re jumpin’ at them gnats? Aint the water 

jest ’live with ’em? Aint it shinin’ an’clear an’-” The voice 

faltered an instant, then went on: “Yes, sir, I’m cornin’—I’m glad, 
dreffle glad to come. Don’t mind ’bout my leavin’ my fishin’; do ye 
think I care ’bout that ? I’ll jest lay down my pole ahin’ the alders 
here, an’ put my lan’in’ net on the stuns, with my flies, an’ tackle— 
the boys ’ll like ’em, ye know—an’ I’ll be right along. 

“ I mos’ knowed ye was on’y a-tryin’ me when ye said that ’bout 
how I hadn’t been a fisher o’ men, nor even boys, on’y a dog. ’Twas 
a—fishin’ dog—ye know—an’ ye was allers dreffle good to fisher¬ 
men—dreffle good to—everybody ;—died—for—’em ; didn’t ye ?- 

“ Please wait—on—the—bank there, a minnit; I’m cornin’ ’crost. 
Water’s pretty—cold this—spring—an’ the stream’s risin’—but—I 
—can—do it—don’t ye mind—’bout—me, sir. I’ll—get—acrost.” 
Once more the voice ceased, and we thought we should not hear it 
again this side that stream. 

But suddenly a strange light came over the thin face, the soft 
gray eyes opened wide, and he cried out with a strong voice we had 
so often heard come ringing out to us across the mountain streams, 
above the sound of their rushing: “ Here I be, sir! It’s Fishin’ Jimmy, 
ye know, from Francony way; him ye useter call James when ye 
come ’long the shore o’ the pond an’ I was a-fishin’. I heern 
ye agin, jest now—an’ I—straightway—f’sook—my—nets—an’—fol- 

Had the voice ceased utterly ? No, we could catch faint, low 
murmurs, and the lips still moved. But the words were not for us; 
and we did not know when he reached the other bank. 

Annie Trumbull Slosson. 



Even in these days of large enterprises we do not find a parallel of the 
condition of affairs at the American isthmus. Two colossal undertakings 
having the same end in view are being pushed forward at the same time, and 
this when the costs are matter of conjecture, the difficulties to be encoun¬ 
tered are to a great extent unknown, and the returns to be expected cannot 
be predicted. The statement that a ship-canal across the isthmus would be 
a benefit to the commerce of all nations has not been disputed. That a 
canal of reasonable cost would be a financial success, earning enough to pay 
the expenses of operation and maintenance and a dividend to the stock¬ 
holders, seems quite certain. The beginning of active operations by the pro¬ 
moters of the Nicaragua Interoceanic Canal, at a time when the Panama 
Company is well nigh crushed under its financial burden, may be wondered 
at, but reason for their action is found in the condition of affairs at Panama. 

In 1877-78 Lieutenant Wyse, acting for the Society Civile Interna¬ 
tionale dti Canal Interocdanique , secured from the Government of the 
United States of Colombia a concession for a ship-canal across the 
American isthmus between certain limits. Within these limits the only 
feasible route is the one nearly coincident with that adopted by Stephens 
and Baldwin in 1849 for the Panama Railway. Wyse and his compan¬ 
ions made a partial survey of this route, hastened to Paris, and suc¬ 
ceeded in inducing M. de Lesseps to father their scheme. The Interna¬ 
tional Scientific Congress was convened, and it, by proper manipulation, 
was made to declare a sea-level canal at Panama the most practicable way 
of connecting the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The estimate of the cost 
was given as $86,000,000, and the work was to be finished in 1888. The 
concession that Wyse had secured and the results of his surveys were 
transferred to a new company for a consideration of $2,000,000, and M. de 
Lesseps began his well-known juggling operations with the surveys and 
estimates, including the formation of the International Technical Com¬ 
mission of 1880, and its report. 

The Panama Canal Company was definitely organized in March, 1881, 
and work at the isthmus was begun during the fall months of that year. Of the 
character of this work it may be said that the expenses of administration 
are excessive, that contracts are made loosely, and contractors allowed to do 
very much as they please, that large and difficult portions of the work are 
2 5 



undertaken without adequate forethought, and that no plans have been made 
for some of the most important features of the undertaking. The face value 
of the stock thus far issued is more than three times the amount of the ori¬ 
ginal, and only about one-fourth of the work has been done. The methods 
of administration and procedure give strong ground for the feeling that the 
enterprise will collapse and the money contributed be a total loss. 

The enterprise at Nicaragua is not so far advanced, but the probabilities of 
success are much greater. Ever since the Spaniards made surveys of the coun¬ 
try in the sixteenth century, the neighborhood of Lake Nicaragua has been 
looked upon as a possible location for an interoceanic canal, and the general 
opinion of competent judges is that this route is the most feasible. During 
the past forty years many surveys have been made by engineers, and at last 
a company has been organized, and a large party sent to make a detailed 
location of the work and to prepare the line for the actual operations 
of construction. The estimated cost is $65,000,000, including twenty- 
five per cent, for surveys, hospitals, and contingencies ; and it is expected that 
the canal will be ready to receive traffic in 1892. Whether the estimate of 
the cost and the time allowed for construction will be sufficient for the pur¬ 
pose cannot be foretold, but in making the calculations Engineer Menocal 
has been able to use the figures from many surveys previous to his own, and 
has had the experience at Panama as a guide in the determination of the 
actual cost of work. In what has thus far been accomplished there is evident 
an honest effort to do the work on sound engineering principles and in 
accordance with rational financial methods. 

In the matter of situation the Nicaragua project is more fortunate than 
the more southern one. At Panama the average annual rainfall is 120 
inches, most of it falling during the rainy season. The plans for con¬ 
trolling this large amount of surface water are not yet completed, and if 
matured and carried out successfully, will add seriously to the cost of the 
undertaking. At Nicaragua, while the rainfall is large, the broad lake acts 
as a storage reservoir to moderate the effects of the excessive rains, and the 
narrowness of the valley of the San Juan and the large body of water in the 
river combine to reduce to a minimum the effects of freshets. Nicaragua 
is, undoubtedly, less unhealthful than Panama, but at both places strict 
sanitary supervision is required. The question of the lengths of the lines of 
communication by the two canals involves the consideration of the length of 
time occupied by sailing vessels, as well as the number of miles traversed. 
In this regard the Nicaragua canal has an undoubted advantage over its 
rival. Not only does its more northerly situation decrease the distance be¬ 
tween ports on the Atlantic and ports on the Pacific coasts of the United 
States by 700 or 800 miles, but its position outside of the belt of calms 
on the Atlantic side and north of the doldrums on the Pacific, causes 
a saving to sailing vessels of more than a week on each side of the 
isthmus. This saving will much more than counterbalance the extra time 
required for the passage through the longer canal at Nicaragua; and the 


greater certainty in estimating the length of time required for a voyage will 
be a decided advantage. 

The control of an interoceanic ship-canal across the American isthmus 
is a matter of great importance to the Government and people of the United 
States. When constructed it will undoubtedly be the route for a large com¬ 
merce between the Atlantic and the Pacific States, and, if the expectations 
of the promoters of the canal schemes are realized, the larger part of this 
traffic will belong to residents of the United States and be carried by their 
vessels. In times of peace, as well as in the event of war, it would afford the 
natural route for transport in naval and military operations. These con¬ 
siderations make it desirable that our Government should procure for our 
commerce a reduction of charges, and should secure a position to control the 
canal in time of war. Neither of these has been done. In the concession 
to the Panama Company the Colombian Government guarantees the neu¬ 
trality of the canal and makes provision for its own commerce, ignoring the 
treaty of 1846-48, which provided for the equality of the citizens of the 
two countries. For the Nicaragua line the provisions of the Clayton-Buhver 
treaty of 1850 still hold, notwithstanding the many discussions. By it Eng¬ 
land and the United States are put on an equal footing, and would prob¬ 
ably unite to guarantee the neutrality of the canal. This position of the 
United States is the result of our diplomatic methods, which, in matters 
connected with the canal question, have been inferior to those of England 
and France, besides being hampered and modified by party questions and 
local interests. 


Among recent publications in France, none is of greater value to the 
student of American history than the Histoire de la Participation de la France 
& TAtablissement des Etats- Unis d'Amdrique, by Henry Doniol, Director 
of the National Printing Bureau at Paris. This work, composed from diplo¬ 
matic correspondence and other documents in the French archives relating 
to the rebellion of the English colonies in America and the establishment of 
American freedom, is intended as a typographical monument for the cente¬ 
nary of the French Revolution, in 1889. Two large quarto volumes, executed 
in magnificent style as respects paper and printing, have already appeared, 
and three more are to follow. Thanks to M. Doniol, who has performed his 
task with great fidelity and conscientiousness, we have fresh information on 
this important historical episode. 

There are two sides to the history of American independence, the Ameri¬ 
can and the French. The people of the United States know something of the 
former, and a very little of the latter ; while the French know scarcely any¬ 
thing of either, their ignorance being due, probably, to the overwhelming 
interest of the Revolution of ’89, which came so soon after the establishment 
of American independence. It is true that French history records the influ- 



ence on the French mind of the American struggle for liberty. Mirabeau, 
the Girondists, and the Jacobin demagogues often alluded to it in their 
political speeches ; while various monographs on the subject, with biogra¬ 
phies of the great actors in the Revolution, Washington, Jefferson, Franklin, 
and others, as well as travels in the country at the time, like those of Chas- 
tellux, have since been published : but nowhere, so far, can any serious, 
exhaustive study of the Revolution be found in French, according to the volu¬ 
minous details of it existing in the French archives. In America a knoAv- 
ledge of the Revolutionary War is, of course, more extensive than in France, 
but it is about as one-sided, since most American historians, to say nothing 
of their prejudices, favoritism, and, Ave may add, idealism, have relied too 
exclusively on local documents. Even Avhen this has not been the case, 
the use of foreign material has sometimes rendered the stream of national 
history more turbid than it was before. M. Doniol’s Avork serves to clarify 
this stream and to remove many obscurities. 

A feAV indications of the nature of this purification of our history shoAV 
in Avhat sense M. Doniol’s Avork is valuable. For example, one popular no¬ 
tion prevalent amongst us, is that the help which the French gave us in the 
Revolution Avas Avholly due to Lafayette. This is not exact. Without in any 
Avay derogating from the great value of Lafayette’s influence and example, 
M. Doniol furnishes documents Avhich prove that the idea of assisting the 
American insurgents originated AA r ith the Count de Yergennes, Minister of 
Foreign Affairs under Louis XVI., and the pilot of the Avhole affair, as far as 
France was concerned, to the end. France came out of the Seven Years’ War, 
in 1763, humiliated by England, Avith her navy destroyed, and subject to 
the galling right Avhich the English then exercised, of overhauling and examin¬ 
ing the vessels of other nations on the high seas. As early as 1774, on the 
beginning of the agitation against the mother country in the American colo¬ 
nies, Vergennes, seeing that it Avas to be serious, proposed to Louis XVI. to 
take advantage of it and cripple England, even at the risk of a conflict Avith 
her should events render war necessary. By so doing France Avould recover 
its lost prestige in Europe, and the arbitrary exercise of power by Eng¬ 
land on the seas would be curtailed. Vergennes’s first object, accordingly, 
was to secure the cooperation of Spain, whose possessions in America Avere 
involved in the risk. The negotiations for this purpose Avith the Spanish 
Government Avere long and substantially fruitless, but it is essential to 
understand them, because only through them can many of the obstacles in 
the Avay of parties interested in the American cause in France be ex¬ 
plained. M. Doniol quotes largely from the diplomatic correspondence 
betAveen the French and Spanish governments, and cites the memorials of 
Vergennes, all of which leave no doubt on the mind that the help Avhich 
France furnished during our Revolution Avas primarily due to the efforts of 
the latter. 

The next point on which M. Doniol throAvs fresh light is in relation to 
Beaumarchais. It appears that the versatile author of the Marriage of 



Figaro was a capable and useful instrument in the hands of the Count de 
Vergennes, and much more influential than is generally supposed. He was a 
very early, warm, and intelligent advocate of American interests, and exceed¬ 
ingly able in the management of everything intrusted to him. His services 
in England and elsewhere, as a secret diplomatic agent, the arguments and 
facts he furnishes to his patron in support of particular undertakings, the poli¬ 
tical advice he gives in his correspondence, the measures he recommends, his 
negotiations and devices in behalf of the Americans, all show that this curious 
character was remarkably clever. He was sagacious, energetic, and practical. 
He seems, as we would say, to have been well posted on American affairs 
and to have readily understood what was most needed there. Finding 
that the insurgents required military engineers, he urged Vergennes to send 
them, declaring that the Americans had plenty of pluck but lacked science. 
The alliance finally concluded between France and the American Congress 
was literally carried out according to a protocol prepared and recommended 
by Beaumarchais months before the treaty was signed. Vergennes’s policy, 
pending the Spanish negotiations, was to aid the Americans secretly, at the 
same time maintaining peaceful relations with England as long as possible. 
In this secret service Beaumarchais was at once the “ Government ” and the 
scapegoat ; he was to act on his own responsibility, and suffer if caught. 
When the English, through their spies, learned that he was despatching 
vessels and munitions of war to the rebels, in violation of treaties and of 
international law, they obliged Vergennes to stop these proceedings and 
to discountenance him. The effect was to make him the butt of attack 
by French officers enlisted in the American cause, and especially of the 
American Commissioners, in whose interests he was really acting. Silas 
Deane was particularly indignant. Denounced as a private speculator by 
these parties and yet obliged to mask the intentions of the Government, 
compelled to keep a diplomatic secret and at the same time disabuse the 
mind of his patron of charges made against him by his enemies and due 
to apparent indiscretions, he needed no less of patience than of skill and 
courage. It is probably due to the machinations of Du Coudray, an am¬ 
bitious engineer, that Franklin was prejudiced against him. 

This secret policy of Vergennes, again, accounts for the apparent attempt 
of the French Government to prevent Lafayette’s departure for America, a 
show of opposition merely intended to throw dust in the eyes of the Eng¬ 
lish Ministry. The Marquis de Noailles, one of Lafayette’s relatives, was 
then French Minister at the Court of St. James, and to allow Lafayette to 
embark for America would not only have compromised him, but probably 
contributed to an immediate declaration of war. 

Another interesting particular which M. Doniol brings out is the con¬ 
stant fear of Vergennes and the French Ministry that England might offer 
such terms of peace to the colonies as to lead them to lay down their 
arms and form an alliance against France. This fear did not subside 
until the Revolution was almost over, and then, under the sagacious reports 



and management of Gerard de Rayneval, the French Minister sent to the 
United States after the open rupture with England. 

Our limited space forbids extended illustrations of the value of M. 
Doniol’s work. Many interesting facts are given in relation to Lafayette, 
De Kalb, Silas Deane, Arthur Lee, and even Franklin, which have not 
formerly appeared in print. M. Doniol clearly shows that Frederick II. of 
Prussia was in no respect a special friend or advocate of the American 
colonies; but that the object of this monarch in all his allusions to 
America was simply the abasement of England, and to open up commer¬ 
cial relations with the United States when independent. 

The volumes which are to follow will be still more entertaining, con¬ 
taining details of the Revolution from a French point of view, derived from 
the correspondence of its Ministers Plenipotentiary in the United States, 
who reported weekly, sometimes even oftener, on the events of the day, 
and whose letters are now on file in the French archives. 


On this topic two interesting books have recently appeared. The first, 
bearing the title of VEnigtna Vita* is from the veteran pen of John Wilson, and 
contains some very profound thought, expressed in a style of great beauty. 
The underlying concept of the book is the philosophical interpretation of 
Christianity as containing the only efficient antidote to the isolating indivi¬ 
dualism of the day. Only in unity with the universal does the individual 
ego realize its true being. Or, to express the same thought in terms of 
religion, only in its unity with Christ, only in absorption in him, can the 
individual soul realize its true and satisfying life. Christianity thus em¬ 
bodies the profoundest philosophy, since its central fact is the unity of the 
human and the divine in Christ. This gives it a power possessed by no 
other scheme of life to satisfy the deepest soul-needs of humanity. The 
author then proceeds to trace, in his fascinating way, the ideal progress 
of the ego from the first dawn of its conscious life, step by step through 
stages of isolation and self-assertion, up to the supreme moment when it 
finds its complete finite good in self-surrender to the infinite Christ. 

The second work, entitled The Gist of It , f is the first literary venture of 
a young author, Rev. Thomas E. Barr, of Beloit, Wisconsin. It originated, 
he says in his preface, “ in the author’s efforts to find for himself sure foot¬ 
ing in the shifting, conflicting phases of modern thought, and determine a 
satisfactory explanation and scheme of life-activity.” The discussion falls 
into two parts, the first treating of the facts of life, the second of their 

* Asnigma Vita. By John Wilson, M.A., pp. ix., 254. London, 1887: Hodder & 

f The Gist of It. By Rev. Thomas E. Barr, B. A., pp. xxxiii., 350. New York, 1887 : 
A. C. Armstrong & Son. 



explanation. Under these heads the author presents a comprehensive array 
of the facts and considerations which bear on the life problem in its various 
aspects. The interpretation of the facts is treated all too briefly in the last 
fifty-seven pages of the volume. The various schemes which men ordinarily 
propose—happiness, wealth, fame, power, and self-culture—are passed in 
review, and their insufficiency to satisfy the needs of the soul briefly but for¬ 
cibly pointed out. Only in Christianity can a satisfactory interpretation of 
the riddle of life be found. The book was not written for specialists, but 
rather for that large class of intelligent and thoughtful young men and 
women on whom the practical questions of life are pressing for solution. 
To these it can be commended as a book well worthy of their perusal; and 
others more advanced in living and thinking may find its discussions to be 
not without helpful suggestions. 


Of which there may be critical noiice hereafter. 

Armstrong. — Five-Minute Sermons to Children , pp. 203. New York, 1887 : Phillips & Hunt. 

Bradley. — The Goths , the Story of the Nations Series, pp. xxii., 376. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 
Buck. — I.avo and Limitation 0/our Lord's Miracles. New York: Phillips & Hunt. 

Clark. — Witnesses to Christ, pp. 300. Chicago, 1888: A. C. McClurg & Co. 

Crane.— The SEr.eid of Virgil, translated literally, pp. xxviii., 258. New York, 1888; The Baker & 
Taylor Co. 

Curry. — The Book of Job, pp. x., 302. New York, 1887 : Phillips & Hunt. 

Dorchester. — Christianity in the United States , pp. 795. New York, 188S : Phillips & Hunt. 

Dyer.— Six Sermons on Leading New Church Doctrines , pp. 79. New York, 1887 : 20 Cooper Union. 
Hamill. — New Science of Elocution , pp. 382. New York, 1887 : Phillips & Hunt. 

Holcombe. — Condensed Thoughts about Christian Science , pp. S3- Chicago, 1887 : Purdy Publishing Co. 
Inge. — Society in Rome under the Ccesars , pp. viii., 276. New York, 18S8: Charles Scribner’s Sons. 
Ladd. — What is the Bible ? pp. xiv., 497. New York, 1888 : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

Lomb Prize Essays , I., II., III., IV. New York: The American News Co. 

Pearse. — Some Aspects of the Blessed Life , pp. 222. New York, 1887 : Phillips & Hunt. 

Phoebus — Young Folks' Nature Studies , pp. v., 258. New York, 1887 : Phillips & Hunt. 

Lost on an Island, pp. 216. New York, 1887: Phillips & Hunt. 

Porter. — Self-Reliance Encouraged , pp. 280. New York, 1887: Phillips & Hunt. 

Report of the Commissioner of Education for the Year 1885-86, pp. xxi., 792. Washington, 1887 : The 
Government Printing Office. 

Richmond. — Woman , First and Last , 2 vols., pp. 271, 300. New York, 1887: Phillips & Hunt. 
Stuckenberg .—Introduction to the Study of Philosophy, pp. ix., 422. New York, 1888: A. C. Arm¬ 
strong & Son. 

Swedenborg.— The Soul, translated and edited by Frank Sewall, A.M., pp. xxvi, 388. New York, 1887: 
New Church Board of Publication. 

Thompson. — The Religious Sentiments of the Human Mind,pp. viii., 176. London and New York, 
18S8: Longmans, Green & Co. 

Todd. — The Story of tke City of New York, pp. xvi., 478. New York and London, 1888: G. P. Put¬ 
nam’s Sons. 

Tuttle. — History of Prussia under Frederic the Great, 2 vols., pp. xxiv., 308 ; xii., 334. Boston and 
New York, j888 : Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

Valdes.— Maximina, pp. 390. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell & Co. 

White. — European Schools of History and Politics, pp. 89. Baltimore, 1887: Johns Hopkins University 
Studies in Historical and Political Science. 

Wlnn .—Property in Land, pp. 73. New York and London, 1888: G. P. Putnam’s Sons. 




cipal events in connection with the Admin¬ 
istration during the past six months have 
been the President’s Message, with the dis¬ 
cussion provoked by it, and the controversy 
over the nomination of the Hon. L. Q. C. 
Lamar, Secretary of the Interior, to be an 
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court 
of the United States. Mr. Cleveland’s Mes¬ 
sage was the shortest sent to Congress for 
years, and, instead of reviewing the “state 
of the Union,” was entirely devoted to a 
SURPLUS REVENUE. An abstract of the mes¬ 
sage will be found under CONGRESS. The 
document at once started a lively politi¬ 
cal discussion, and really opened the Presi¬ 
dential canvass. By most of the Republi¬ 
can press it was denounced as a free-trade 
appeal, and it was generally accepted as fix¬ 
ing the issue on which the coming Presiden¬ 
tial campaign is to be fought. The Demo¬ 
crats and Independents contended that the 
policy advocated by the President would be 
a wise and moderate step in the direction of 
needed tariff reform, and that an immediate 
reduction of the surplus was demanded.— 
On December 6 the President sent to the 
Senate the nominations of Secretary La¬ 
mar to be Associate Justice, of Post¬ 
master-General Vilas to be Secretary 
of the Interior, and of Don M. Dickin¬ 
son of Michigan to be Postmaster-Gen¬ 
eral. The nomination of Mr. Lamar 
aroused a storm of disapproval on the part 
of the opposition press. The Secretary was 
accused of being a “rebel,” of having re¬ 
fused to give assent to the Xlllth, XlVth, 
and XVth Amendments to the Constitution, 
and of not having had sufficient experience as 
a lawyer to justify his elevation to a seat on 
the bench of our highest court. It was also 
alleged that he did not possess a judicial 
mind, and that once in a Mississippi court 
he lost his temper to such an extent that he 
made a personal attack on a United States 
marshal. The Senate was very slow in tak¬ 
ing action upon the nomination. Before the 
matter came to a vote it was pretty well 
understood that enough Republican votes 
could be depended on to make the confirma¬ 
tion certain. Mr. Lamar resigned as Sec¬ 
retary of the Interior on January 7, and on 

the same day a letter was written by Senator 
Stewart (Republican) of Nevada, setting 
forth his reasons for having decided to vote 
in favor of confirmation. Finally, on Janu¬ 
ary 16, the Senate took up the case and Mr. 
Lamar was confirmed by a vote of 32 to 
28, Messrs. Stewart and Stanford (Republi¬ 
cans) and Mr. Riddleberger (Independent) 
voting with the Democrats in the majority. 
Strong speeches against confirmation were 
made in secret session by Senators Ed¬ 
munds, Hoar, Evarts, Sherman, and Haw¬ 
ley. There were no speeches on the Demo¬ 
cratic side.—On the same day Messrs. Vi¬ 
las and Dickinson were also confirmed. 
—The President, who set out, September 
30, for a tour of the West and South, 
returned to Washington, October 22, after 
visiting Indianapolis, Chicago, Milwaukee, 
Madison (Wisconsin), St. Paul, Minneapo¬ 
lis, Sioux City, St. Joseph, Kansas City, 
Memphis, Nashville, Chattanooga, Atlan¬ 
ta, Montgomery (Alabama), and Asheville 
(North Carolina). Everywhere he was greeted 
by large crowds ; in Atlanta the enthusiasm 
was especially noticeable. — The FRICTION 
between Secretary Lamar and Commis¬ 
sioner Sparks, of the Land Office, came 
to an issue November 11, when Mr. Sparks 
wrote a letter to the Secretary criticising 
some of the latter’s land decisions in a way 
offensive to Mr. Lamar. The Secretary in 
reply said that the President must either ap¬ 
point a new Secretary of the Interior or a 
new Commissioner of the Land Office. Mr. 
Sparks, on November 15, placed his resig¬ 
nation in the hands of the President, and it 
was accepted two days later.— Strother 
M. Stockslager, of Indiana, was appointed 
Commissioner of the Land Office on March 
20.—On November 18 George L. Rives, 
of New York, was appointed First Assist¬ 
ant Secretary of State.—On January 12 Gen. 
Edward S. Bragg, of Wisconsin, was ap¬ 
pointed Minister to Mexico, to succeed the 
late Thomas C. Manning.— The annual 

URY showed the surplus in the Treasury to 
be $55,258,701. The receipts were $371,- 
403,277, of which $217,286,893 was from 
customs and $118,823,391 from internal 
revenues. The expenses were $315,835,- 
428; the largest items being $75,029,101 
for pensions, $38,561,025 for military ex¬ 
penses and rivers and harbors, $47,741,577 
for interest, and $47,903,248 for the sink- 



ing fund. The increase in receipts over 
the fiscal year 1886 was $34,963,550. The 
increase in customs receipts was, in round 
numbers, $240,000; from internal taxes, 
$2,000,000; and from the sales of pub¬ 
lic lands and the profits on the coinage, 
$3,000,000 each. The increase in expendi¬ 
tures was $25,449,041, of which over 
$11,000,000 was for pensions. The de¬ 
crease in the interest on the public debt was 
nearly $3,000,000. For the present fiscal 
year the revenues, actual and estimated, are 
$383,000,000, and the total expenditures, 
including sinking fund, $316,817,785; esti¬ 
mated surplus, $66,182,214.—According to 
only armament on the entire Atlantic coast¬ 
line of 2,870 miles and the northern frontier 
of 3,530 miles is 142 rifled guns, of which 
116 are obsolete and of very low power. He 
approved the recommendation of GENERAL 
Sheridan that the General Government 
should extend all possible aid to the na¬ 
tional GUARD in the several States.—SECRE¬ 
TARY Whitney of the Navy, in his report, 
said that, with the exception of two cases, the 
Department had practically abandoned the 
idea of the unprotected torpedo-boat, but 
he recommended the continuance of experi¬ 
ments in submarine boats. He opposed 
any further appropriations for work on the 
single-turreted monitors. He advised the 
construction of five new ships: two armor- 
clad vessels, to cost, exclusive of armament, 
not more than $6,000,000, one to be built 
by contract and one in the navy-yards, and 
three more fast cruisers of the highest type. 
In six years, he said, only four of the pres¬ 
ent cruising ships will remain serviceable, 
that is, the old navy will have disappeared. 
Encouragement of torpedo experiments was 
urged, and it was suggested that the course 
in the Naval Academy be reduced to four 
years.—Admiral Porter, in his annual report 
to the Secretary of the Navy, stated that the 
TIRELY defenceless against a single iron¬ 
clad : New York, Boston, San Francisco, 
Philadelphia, Washington, New Orleans, 
Baltimore, Norfolk, Hampton Roads, Port¬ 
land (Maine), Portsmouth (New Hamp¬ 
shire), Charleston, Mobile, Savannah, Gal¬ 
veston, Wilmington (North Carolina), and 
San Diego (California).—In the annual 
was stated that it might fairly be affirmed 
that from the beginning of the current fiscal 
year the postal service had again become sub¬ 
stantially self-sustaining. It was also pre¬ 
dicted that if the revenues were not further 
crippled, and only a similar ratio of increas¬ 
ing expenditure maintained, the next fiscal 
year would yield a surplus, which should, 
under the same conditions, annually in¬ 
crease ; and that the time was not far dis¬ 
tant when the rate of letter-postage could 
properly be reduced to one cent an ounce, 

and some reduction made in the postage on 
merchandise and other matter.—The report 
of the Third Assistant Postmaster-General 
showed that the total postal revenue of the 
year was $48,837,609 and the total expendi¬ 
tures $53,133,252. The receipts were 11.I 
per cent, greater than during the previous 
year ; the increase of expenditure was at a 
ratio of only 3.4 per cent.—The President, 
on October 31, received a deputation from 
Great Britain who desired to secure his 
cooperation in securing a treaty between 
that country and the United States which 
shall provide for the amicable settle¬ 
Cleveland expressed cordial sympathy with 
peaceful methods in the settlement of in¬ 
ternational disagreements.—The President 
went to Florida for a short visit on Febru¬ 
ary 21. He visited Jacksonville, St. Au¬ 
gustine, Palatka, and Charleston (South 
Carolina), and returned to Washington on the 
signed on March 13. It prohibits the en¬ 
trance of Chinese labor into this country for 
twenty years, but allows Chinese having 
families here, or property of the value of 
$1,000 or more, to go to China and return 
hither on proof of the fact.—The Inter- 
State-Commerce Commission, in its first re¬ 
port to the Secretary of the Interior, cover- 
ing eight months, said that the operation of 
the Inter-State Act had in general been bene¬ 
ficial ; “ pooling ” had come to an end, and 
many serious evils had ceased to exist.—Two 
reports were presented in December by the 
Commission which investigated the Pacific 
railroads that received aid from the Gov¬ 
ernment. Commissioners Andrews and Lit- 
tler recommended an extension of the com¬ 
panies’ obligations and presented bills ef¬ 
fecting a settlement of the debts. That of 
the Union Pacific was placed at $50,757,173 
and that of the Central Pacific at $71,792,- 
525. Commissioner Pattison criticised the 
management of the companies in unmeas¬ 
ured terms, declared that they were bank¬ 
rupt, and recommended that the Depart¬ 
ment of Justice begin suits to have them 
placed in the hands of receivers. 

Fiftieth Congress met on December 5. 
The Senate was almost equally divided po¬ 
litically, Mr. Riddleberger of Virginia hold¬ 
ing the balance of power. In the House of 
Representatives there were 168 Democrats, 
153 Republicans, and 4 Independents.—The 
President’s Message was read in both 
Houses on December 6. It was entirely 
given up to a discussion of the surplus and 
the tariff. The most significant sentence 
in it was this : “ It is a condition which 
Cleveland pointed out that the surplus in the 
Treasury on December 1 was $55,258,701.- 
19, and that it was estimated that it would 
reach $113,000,000 on June 30, 188S, which, 



added to prior accumulations, would swell 
the surplus to $140,000,000. He said further: 
“Our present tariff laws, the vicious, inequi¬ 
table, and illogical source of unnecessary tax¬ 
ation, ought to be AT ONCE REVISED AND 
amended. These laws, as their primary 
and plain effect, raise the price to consumers 
of all articles imported and subject to duty, 
by precisely the sum paid for such duties.” 
He did not propose to relieve the country 
entirely of this taxation. In a readjustment 
of our tariff, he said, “ the INTERESTS OF 
American labor engaged in manufacture 
should be carefully considered, as well as the 
preservation of our manufactures.” 
The message opposed the reduction of taxa¬ 
tion in such a way as to cause the loss of 
employment by the laboring man, or the re¬ 
duction of his wages. Considerable space 
was devoted to an argument in favor of the 
removal of the duty on wool. The 
President opposed any reduction in the in¬ 
ternal-revenue taxes, because the articles 
taxed were not, strictly speaking, necessa¬ 
ries. A radical reduction in, or the aboli¬ 
tion of, duties on raw materials used in 
manufactures was recommended. — The 
House of Representatives was organ¬ 
ized by the election of John G. Carlisle as 
Speaker, in spite of the fact that his seat 
was the subject of a contest brought by Mr. 
Thobe. The Committee on Elections, under 
the circumstances, was selected by the House 
itself, and the Carlisle case was immediately 
taken up. The Speaker meanwhile began 
to make up the other committees. The work, 
however, made exceedingly slow progress, 
and it was not until January 4 that the com¬ 
mittees were announced.—The Committee 
on Elections, on January 14, refused to re¬ 
open the case of Thobe vs. Carlisle, and, on 
January 20, the House, by a vote of 132 to 
125, refused to order an investigation in the 
case ; six Democrats voted in the minority. 
The majority report of the Committee was 
to the effect that Carlisle was entitled to his 
seat; but by absenting themselves, refusing 
to vote, and other mild forms of filibustering, 
the Republicans were able, on January 20 
and 21, to prevent a quorum from voting, 
and it was not till the 23d that the report 
was finally adopted, by a vote of 164 to 7.— 
The first bill passed by Congress became 
a law January 20 ; it amended the law relat¬ 
ing to the Commissioner of Fish and Fisher¬ 
ies, by giving the Commissioner a salary of 
$5,000, and providing that he should devote 
all his time to his duties. The President ap¬ 
pointed to this office Marshall McDonald. 
—The Senate, on January 31, passed an 
amendment to the Constitution extend¬ 
ing President Cleveland’s term and the dura¬ 
tion of the present Congress to April 30, 
1889, after which that date was permanently 
to take the place of March 4 as the begin¬ 
ning and termination of the official term of 
the President, Vice-President, Senators, and 

Representatives. The House, after a long 
wrangle, on February 20, defeated the 
proposition.—The Senate, on February 8, 
postponed the consideration of the treaty 
with Great Britain until the first Mon¬ 
day in next December.—The well-known 
Blair Educational Bill, appropriating 
$79,000,000 to be distributed among the 
States in proportion to illiteracy, was passed 
by the Senate, after a prolonged debate, on 
February 15. The vote was 39 to 29, a decid¬ 
edly smaller majority than the bill received 
on the occasion of either of its two previous 
passages through that body. In the House 
the bill was referred to a committee. _ There 
is no expectation of its passage.—On Feb¬ 
ruary 23 the Senate passed a bill to provide 
for an international marine conference 
for securing greater safety for life and prop¬ 
erty at sea. It authorizes the President to 
invite each maritime nation to send delegates; 
the conference is to be held in Washing¬ 
ton, October 1 ; the United States will be 
represented by five delegates ; the sum of 
$30,000 was appropriated to pay the expense. 
—An important amendment to the rules 
of the Senate was made on March 6, when 
it was decided that treaties shall be dis¬ 
cussed in open session whenever a ma¬ 
jority so desire.—On March 13 the Senate 
adopted a resolution offered by Mr. Hale in 
December for the appointment of a special 
committee to examine fully into the condition 
of the Civil Service.—A new Dependent 
Pension Bill was passed by the Senate on 
March 8. It differs from the bill passed in 
1887, but vetoed by the President, mainly in 
requiring “total disability” on the part of 
the pensioner, while the vetoed bill set no 
definite limit to the amount of disability that 
would entitle one to a pension. The es¬ 
sential section of the present measure is as 
follows: “All persons who served three 
months or more in the military or naval ser¬ 
vice of the United States during the War of 
the Rebellion, and who have been honorably 
discharged therefrom, and who are now, or 
who may hereafter be, suffering from mental 
or physical disability, not the result of their 
own vicious habits, which totally incapaci¬ 
tates them for the performance of manual 
labor, and who are without other adequate 
means of self-support, shall ... be 
placed upon the list of invalid pension¬ 
ers of the United States, and be entitled to 
receive $12 per month. . . .”—The 

number of Union soldiers supported in 
Government and private institutions 
in October, 1887. according to a report made 
by the Pension Commissioner to the House 
Committee on Invalid Pensions, was 36,953. 
Of these 15,152 were in soldiers’ homes, 
and 21,801 in State and county institutions, 
or supported by charitable aid in towns. A 
large proportion of those in soldiers’ homes 
are already pensioners.—Both houses of 
Congress have passed a bill authorizing the 

RECORD. 395 

President to ARRANGE A CONFERENCE be¬ 
tween the United States and the republics 
of Mexico, Central and South America, 
Hayti and St. Domingo, and the Empire of 
Brazil ; the conference is to be held at 
Washington, in April, 1889, and $100,000 is 
appropriated for the expenses.—The House 
Committee on Rivers and Harbors has pre¬ 
MENTS, by far the largest sum ever proposed 
for this purpose.—A bill giving the widows 
of General John A. Logan and General F. 
P. Blair pensions of $2,000 each has become 
a law. 

REVENUE REFORM.—Three meas¬ 
ures intended to readjust the tariff and 

the surplus in the Treasury have been 
prepared in the House of Representatives ; 
but at the time this record closes, April 1, 
no action upon them has been taken. “A 
bill to reduce taxation and simplify the laws 
in relation to the collection of the revenue ” 
was drawn up by the Democratic majority 
of the Committee on Ways and Means, of 
which Roger Q. Mills, of Texas, is chairman. 
It is known as the Mills Bill, and was 
made public on March 1. It makes sub¬ 
stantial additions to the free list, thus reduc¬ 
ing the revenue on the basis of the impor¬ 
tations for the fiscal year 1887 by about 
$28,000,000. These include the repeal of 
the duties on wool, salt, lumber, flax, hemp, 
jute, and like fibres, and some of their manu¬ 
factures ; on a considerable number of chem¬ 
icals, including boracic acid and vegetable 
dyeing substances ; on copper ore, tin 
plates, cotton ties, paintings and statuary, 
books printed in foreign languages or pub¬ 
lished for free distribution, and on dates, 
plums, prunes, and currants. Many reduc¬ 
tions are made in duties on other articles, it 
being estimated that the decrease in the 
revenue thereby accomplished would amount 
to about $24,000,000.—Mr. Mills and his 
Democratic associates also drew up a bill 
affecting the internal-revenue taxes. It 
repeals all the taxes on manufactured to¬ 
bacco and snuff, and reduces the license fees 
of dealers in tobacco and of manufacturers 
of cigars. The estimated reduction in the in¬ 
ternal revenue is some $25,000,000annually. 
MENT’S income from the operation of these 
two measures would be $70,000,000 to $75,- 
000,000.—A billpreparedbyMr. Randall 
(Protectionist Democrat) repeals the entire 
internal tax on tobacco and on fruit brandies, 
and also repeals the license tax on whole¬ 
sale and retail liquor-dealers. It makes al¬ 
cohol used in the arts free, and reduces the 
tax on whiskey from ninety cents to fifty 
cents a gallon. The bill makes what Mr. 
Randall calls a “ careful and complete revi¬ 
sion of the whole tariff system.” Under 
this bill the estimated reduction will be : 

on internal taxation repealed, $70,000,000; 
on tariff schedules, $25,000,000. 

Joint Commission appointed by the gov¬ 
ernments of Great Britain and the United 
fisheries held its first meeting in Washing¬ 
ton, November 21. This country was repre¬ 
sented by the Hon. James B. Angell and the 
Hon. William L. Putnam, acting with Secre¬ 
tary of State Bayard ; the British Government 
by Joseph Chamberlain. M. P., and Sir L. 
S. Sackville West, British Minister; and 
Canada by Sir Charles Tupper. The Com¬ 
mission continued its negotiations during 
several months. On the evening of Febru¬ 
ary 15 a treaty was signed. It was transmit¬ 
ted to the Senate on February 21 by the 
President, who accompanied it with a mes¬ 
sage, urging that the treaty be ratified. The 
first eight articles of the treaty provide that 
a mixed commission, two members to be 
named by each Government, shall DELIMIT 
the British waters, bays, creeks, and 
harbors of the coasts of Canada and New¬ 
foundland within which the United States 
renounced by the treaty of 1818 the liberty 
to take, dry, or cure fish. Certain named 
bays are specified within which the right of 
fishing is not claimed by the United States. 
It is provided that the delimitation shall be 
marked on prescribed charts. The head¬ 
land theory of measurement is abandoned, 
except as to bays less than ten miles in 
width. Article IX. provides for the free 
navigation by our fishing-vessels of the 
Strait of Canso. Articles X. to XIV. relate to 
SELS in Canadian ports. Such vessels are 
not required to report, enter, or clear when 
putting into any bay or harbor for shelter or 
to repair damages ; they may, when under 
stress of weather or under casualty, unload, 
reload, transship, or sell all fish on board, 
when such unloading, transshipment, or sale 
is made necessary as incidental to repairs ; 
and may replenish outfits, provisions, and 
supplies damaged or lost by disaster ; and 
in case of death or sickness shall be allowed 
all needful facilities, including the shipping 
of crews. Fishing-vessels of Canada and 
Newfoundland are to have on the Atlantic 
coast of the United States all the privileges 
secured by the treaty to our vessels in their 
waters. The XVth article provides that 
whenever the United States shall re¬ 
move the DUTY from fish oil, whale oil, 
seal oil, and fish of all kinds, except fish pre¬ 
served in oil, being the produce of Canadian 
and Newfoundland fisheries, together with 
the duty on the ordinary coverings and pack¬ 
ages, then our fishermen shall have the 
BORS for the purchase of provisions, bait, 
ice, seines, lines, and all other supplies and 
outfits, for the transshipment of their catch, 
and for the shipping of crews. The treaty 

39 6 


was accompanied by what is called a mo¬ 
dus vivendi, which is a temporary ar¬ 
rangement for not more than two years, 
pending the ratification of the treaty. This 
provides that during the period mentioned 
the privileges described in the XVth article 
of the treaty may be enjoyed by United 
States fishing-vessels on the payment of a 
license fee of $1.50 per ton annually. If 
during the continuance of this arrangement 
the duty on fish, fish oil, etc., shall be re¬ 
moved, these licenses are to be issued free 
of charge.—The President in his message 
said: “The treaty meets my approval, be¬ 
cause I believe that it supplies a satisfac¬ 
upon a basis honorable and just to both par¬ 
ties, of the difficult and vexed question to 
which it relates.” He recommended that 
the treaty and all messages and documents 
relating thereto should be at once made pub¬ 
lic. The President’s suggestion was heeded, 
and the treaty was published throughout the 
country on February 22. It did not meet a 
favorable reception at the hands of Repub¬ 
licans in Congress, or of the Republican 
press. Senator Frye of Maine, who is sup¬ 
posed more than any one else to speak for 
the fishermen of the Atlantic coast, made a 
bitter attack on it in newspaper interviews, 
declaring that the United States would gain 
nothing by its ratification. 

THE CIVIL SERVICE.—The most im¬ 
portant matter concerning the Civil Service 
■was the revision of the rules which was 
promulgated on February 3. Before sub¬ 
mitting the amended rules to President 
Cleveland, the Civil-Service Commission 
spent nearly a year in preparing the changes. 
Not one of the original rules was left un¬ 
touched. The new rules are classified as 
General, Departmental, Customs, and Pos¬ 
tal. A penalty is provided for the use of 
official authority to coerce political action in 
any way, and in no examination is any ques¬ 
tion to be allowed that shall, directly or in¬ 
directly, bring out the competitors' religious 
or political opinions. Compulsory examina¬ 
tions are required for promotions. Any ap¬ 
pointing officer may object in writing to all 
persons certified to him as eligible for any 
given place, and, if his objections are ap¬ 
proved by the Commission, new names may 
be certified. The new rules reduce the num¬ 
ber of eligibles to be certified from four to 
three. The revision cuts out the maximum 
age-limit of 45 years in the departments, 
and raises the minimum age-limit from 
i8 to 20. The standard for admission to 
the eligible list is raised from 65 to 70 per 
cent., except in the case of Army and Navy 
veterans. The new postal rules prescribe 
examinations for clerks, carriers, and mes¬ 
sengers, in addition to special and non-com¬ 
petitive examinations. The minimum age- 
limit for carriers is increased from 16 to 21 
years, and the maximum from 35 to 40, 

while in the general postal service the 45 
years maximum limit is expunged, and the 
minimum raised from 16 to 18. The gen¬ 
eral effect of the changes is to make 
the rules more stringent. The only marked 
criticism to which the revision was subjected 
was the failure to incorporate a rule requir¬ 
ing the reasons for removals to be filed with 
the Department. Such a rule was recom¬ 
mended by the majority of the Commission, 
Mr. Edgerton alone opposing it ; but the 
President refused to sanction it. The new 
rules went into effect March 1.—The Presi¬ 
dent, on March 21, wrote to the Civil-Service 
Commission, recommending an extension 

He wishes the classification made uniform in 
the various departments.—In the annual re¬ 
port of the War Department it was stated 
that the results of the Civil-Service ex¬ 
aminations for promotion had been SATIS¬ 
FACTORY. The total number of clerks ex¬ 
amined was 1,014, of whom 963, or 95 per 
cent., passed ; of this number 353, or 35 per 
cent., obtained an average above 90 per 
cent. ;"*51, or 5 per cent., failed to pass,their 
average being less than 75 per cent.—The 
Executive Committee of the Civil-Ser¬ 
vice Reform Association of New York, 
on October 5, unanimously adopted a res¬ 
olution “heartily approving the letter of 
Commissioner Oberly to the Illinois Dem¬ 
ocratic Association in Washington for its 
CIATIONS among employees of the Govern¬ 
ment, as tending to lead to violation of the 
Civil-Service law and to promote the abuses 
which that law was intended to correct, and 
which the President has strongly con¬ 
demned.”—Just at the close of the year 
AN important change was made in the 
New York State Civil-Service Commis¬ 
sion. Mr. Schoonmaker had retired from 
the Commission on being appointed an 
Inter-State-Commerce Commissioner, and 
Messrs. Jay and Richmond held their offices 
under the appointment made by Governor 
Cleveland. In June last Governor Hill 
requested Messrs. Jay and Richmond to 
resign, but they refused, there being no 
limit to their terms fixed by law. On De¬ 
cember 29 the Governor removed them 
summarily, and formed a new Commission, 
consisting of General Daniel E. Sickles, 
James H. Manning, and G. H. Treadwell. 
Their first act was to remove the specially 
qualified and efficient Chief Examiner, 
William Potts, and to appoint in his place 
a political henchman of Smith M. Weed, a 
noted Democratic politician. 

Mr. Cleveland’s Message, as has been said, 
was generally accepted as opening the 
Presidential canvass and as determining 
free trade or protection to be the cardinal 
issue. Whether so intended or not, the chal¬ 
lenge was immediately taken up ; notably by 



the Hon. James G. Blaine, who was in Paris. 
A striking interview with him was sent 
by cable to the New York Tribune and pub¬ 
lished on December 8. Mr. Blaine favored 
the prompt repeal of the tobacco tax, but 
wished to retain the tax on whiskey, and 
would use the revenue thereby derived to 
provide coast defences. He seriously ob¬ 
jected to the repeal of the duty on wool, but 
advised that some changes be made here and 
there in the tariff, not, however, to reduce 
protection. He thought that the effect of 
the message would be to bring about a 
full and fair contest on the question of 
protection.— The renomination of Mr. 
Blaine by the Republicans was looked upon 
as almost assured, and this feeling was in¬ 
creased by the publication of what came to 
be known as the “Paris Message.” Gen¬ 
eral surprise was, therefore, caused when, on 
February 13, there was printed throughout 
the country a letter written by Mr. Blaine to 
the Chairman of the Republican National 
Committee, in which he said that His name 
Convention. He was, he remarked, led 
to this decision by considerations entirely 
personal to himself. He predicted the suc¬ 
cess of the Republican party in the coming 
election. The form in which the with¬ 
drawal was made, it was thought by many 
people, did not remove Mr. Blaine from 
the possibility of becoming again the candi¬ 
date of the Republican party.—About the 
middle of February George W. Childs of 
Philadelphia, who had been spoken of as a 
possible Republican candidate, made a state¬ 
ment in his paper positively declining 
the honor. —On February 20 appeared an 
authorized interview with General Philip H. 
Sheridan affirming in unmistakable terms 
that he would not accept a nomination to 
the Presidency.—The Republican Na¬ 
tional Committee, on December 8, decided 
to hold the National Convention in Chi¬ 
cago on June 19. The call appealed to Re¬ 
publican electors “without regard to past 
political affiliations, differences, or action,” 
and favored a protective tariff, coast defences, 
“a free and honest ballot and a fair count,” 
etc.— The Democratic National Com¬ 
mittee met, on February 22, in Washington, 
and voted to hold the National Conven¬ 
tion on July 3 . Strong pressure was 
brought in favor of San Francisco as the 
place. On the following day St. Louis 
was selected, and the date was changed 
to June 5 . The call was addressed to “ all 
Democratic conservative citizens, irrespec¬ 
tive of past political associations and differ¬ 
ences, who can unite with us in the effort 
for pure, economical, and constitutional gov¬ 

The Supreme Court of the United 
States, on October 27 and 28, heard argu¬ 
ments on the motion to grant a writ of error 

in the case of the condemned Chicago 
Anarchists. On November 2 the applica¬ 
tion was denied, the Court holding that the 
first ten amendments to the National Con¬ 
stitution are limitations upon Federal and 
not upon State action, that the jury law of Illi¬ 
nois is upon its face valid and constitutional, 
and that upon the record there was no evi¬ 
dence that one of the jurors complained of 
should have been declared incompetent. 
Strong pressure was brought to bear upon 
Governor Oglesby of Illinois to induce him 
to commute the sentences of the condemned 
men ; but shortly before the day of execu¬ 
tion, November ix, three of them, George 
Engel, Louis I.ingg, and Adolph Fischer, 
wrote an open letter to the Governor refus¬ 
ing any commutation short of liberty, and 
declaring unabated faith in the principles of 
Anarchism. On the night of November 5 
Engel tried to kill himself by drinking lau¬ 
danum, but was resuscitated. The cells of all 
the Anarchists were searched the next day, 
and in Lingg’s four dynamite bombs were 
found hidden under a mass of papers. The 
criminals were then forbidden to hold in¬ 
tercourse with their friends. Governor Og¬ 
lesby commuted the sentences of Michael 
Schwab and Samuel Fielden to imprison¬ 
ment for life, on the ground that they were 
less directly concerned in the murders than 
the other five. On the morning of Novem¬ 
ber 10 Lingg killed himself by means of 
an explosive placed in his mouth. Engel, 
Fischer, August Spies, and A. R. Par¬ 
sons were hanged on November 11 in the 
Chicago jail.—In the case of Jacob Sharp, 
convicted of bribery, Chief-Judge Ruger 
of the New York Court of Appeals granted a 
stay of proceedings until the final decision 
of the Court should be made. The Court 
heard arguments on the appeal for a new 
trial, October 27-28, and on November 29 
rendered a unanimous decision reversing 
DERING A NEW trial. The chief point 
of the decision was that error had been 
committed in the trial court in permitting 
the prisoner’s testimony to be used against 
himself, such testimony having been ob¬ 
tained by a committee of the State Senate 
when investigating the charges of bribery. 
Sharp was released on December 1, on a bail 
bond of $40,000.— The United States Su¬ 
preme Court, on October 12, granted writs 
of habeas-corpus in the cases of the three Vir¬ 
ginia officials fined by Judge Bond in the 
coupon cases, and in December rendered 
a decision in their favor, declaring that a 
State, as a political sovereignty, can¬ 
COURTS. —The Supreme Court of the United 
States, on November 14, rendered a decision 
adverse to the validity of the driven-well 
patent.— John Most, the leader of the New 
York Anarchists, was arrested on November 
17 for using in a speech language INCITING 



to violence And murder. He was found 
guilty by a jury, and was sentenced, on De¬ 
cember 18, to one year in the penitentiary. 
On an appeal and application for a new trial 
he was released on bail.—A decision in the 
long-pending telephone cases was ren¬ 
dered by the United States Supreme 
Court on March 19. It was in favor of 
the Bell Company on all points and in all 
the five cases. Three of the Justices—Brad¬ 
ley, Field, and Harlan—gave dissenting 
opinions, sustaining the claim that Draw- 
baugh was the first to invent a speaking tele¬ 
phone, although he imperfectly understood 
what he had done and made no effort to in¬ 
troduce it into general use. On all other 
points the Justices were of one mind. This 
telephone litigation has been going on for 
ten years, and this decision is considered the 
most important yet given as to the 
ownership of patents. 

Assembly of the Knights of Labor, at 
Minneapolis, on October 12, adopted the re¬ 
port of a committee appointed to recommend 
the legislation that the order favored. The 
report approved the Blair Educational Bill, 
the eight-hour day for mail-carriers, and the 
Foran Bill relating to homesteads ; it also 
favored Government control of telegraphs 
and telephones. The anti-Powderly ele¬ 
ment in the convention later issued an ad¬ 
dress to “the rank and file of the order,” 
making twenty charges against the Powderly 
management; it alleged that for more than 
a year there had been a conspiracy for hold¬ 
ing the salaried offices, elective and appoint¬ 
ive, in and under the General Assembly.— 
The American Federation of Labor, an 
organization of trade-unions, and the prin¬ 
cipal rival of the Knights of Labor, held its 
annual convention in Baltimore about the 
middle of December. Samuel E. Gompers 
was reelected president and his salary fixed 
at $1,200. The per-capita tax on members 
was reduced from one-half to one-quarter of 
a cent a month ; but a proposition to assess 
each member five cents a week, to start a 
fund to support strikes, was adopted, subject 
to the approval of the local unions. A good 
deal of antagonism to the Knights was mani¬ 
fested during the convention.— Chief En¬ 
gineer Arthur, of the Brotherhood of 
Locomotive Engineers, in his address to 
the convention of the Brotherhood in Chica¬ 
go, October 19, said that there had been 
times when strikes were the only court of 
appeals for working-men, and that the evil 
them.—The principal strike of the period 
under consideration took place in the Coal 
region and on the line of the Read¬ 
ing Railroad Company, in Pennsylvania. 
The trouble began on the railroad on De¬ 
cember 24, when some employees refused to 
handle several car-loads of flour consigned to 
a firm which employed non-union men. They 

were discharged, and some 2,500 men went 
on strike. On January 1 the miners in 
the Schuylkill region struck—about 
20,000 in number—because the company re¬ 
fused to continue the eight percent, advance 
on the $2.50 basis of wages which had pre¬ 
vailed for several months. The agreement 
to continue the advance extended only till 
that date. Probably the compelling motive 
of the miners’ strike was a desire to help the 
railroad hands. Both strikes were approved 
by the Executive Board of the Knights of 
Labor on February 7, but soon afterward 
overtures were made to the company for a 
settlement. The company refused to have 
any dealings with the railroad men, but con¬ 
sented to take the miners back, leaving the 
question of wages for future consideration. 
On February 14 most of the miners re¬ 
turned to work, although a feeling of dis¬ 
satisfaction with the leaders of the strike 
prevailed for some time. During the strike 
of the miners there were some OUTBREAKS 
OF VIOLENCE on the part of Poles and Hun¬ 
garians ; but as a rule good order pre¬ 
vailed. An investigation of the strikes was 
ordered by the House of Representatives, on 
February 1, and considerable testimony had 
been taken when the trouble terminated.— 
On February 3 the miners in the Wyo¬ 
ming and LACKAWANNA regions in Pennsyl¬ 
vania made a demand for an increase of 
15 per cent, in their wages. It was a request 
rather than a demand, and was not accom¬ 
panied with any threat to strike in case of 
refusal.—The strike of the Reading Railroad 
employees was finally declared “off,” on 
March 14, and permission was given to the 
men to apply for their old places as indi¬ 

the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Rail¬ 
road system occurred on February 27. The 
main reason was the refusal of the company 
to grant a demand for uniform wages, 
whether for experienced or inexperienced 
men. The company succeeded in filling the 
strikers’ places, and in a few days resumed 
the regular running of trains. The strik¬ 
ers belonged to the Brotherhood of Locomo¬ 
tive Engineers, and that body talked about 
“stopping every wheel” in the country. 
There was an outburst of indignation at 
this wild threat. Some trouble occurred 
from other roads REFUSING TO HANDLE 
the Burlington’s freight ; the United 
States Courts were appealed to, and de¬ 
cided that the companies could not refuse 
to haul Burlington cars, and that any inter¬ 
ference with traffic would be illegal. The 
principal decision was rendered by Judge 
Gresham.—On March 15 the engineers and 
firemen on the Atchison, Topeka & Santa 
F£ Railroad quit work. This was purely 
a sympathetic strike, as they had no griev¬ 
ances to complain of. The strike only lasted 
till the 18th, when the men were ordered 
back to work.—At the end of March the 



affairs of the western railroads wore a threat¬ 
ening aspect, and there was a prospect of 
strikes on all the roads radiating from Chi¬ 
cago.—On March 29th there was made pub¬ 
lic a long manifesto from Master-Work¬ 
man Powderly to the Knights of Labor, 
in which he urgently requested that strikes 
BE entirely done away with, and that edu¬ 
cation be made the future work of the order. 

THE INDIANS.—Gen. F. M. Arm¬ 
strong, Indian Inspector, who made an in¬ 
vestigation of the trouble on the Crow Re¬ 
servation, made a report which brought 
about the resignation of Henry E. Wil¬ 
liamson, the agent there. Williamson 
was charged with disobeying the Secretary's 
orders, and with making a contract in regard 
to cutting hay on the reservation, out of 
which the contractors made $15,000 a year. 
Williamson was an uncle of Acting Commis¬ 
sioner of Indian Affairs Upshaw.—Early in 
February a statement of Herbert Welsh, 
corresponding secretary and practical mana¬ 
ger of the Indian Rights Association, was 
published, in which he declared that the 
that would do away with partisan appoint¬ 
ments and removals in the Indian service. 
He said that, since the present Administra¬ 
tion came in, 51 of the 59 agents had been 
changed. “ Men in every way well fitted 
for their work have been removed, and in 
most cases the new appointees have no per¬ 
sonal fitness for the positions that have been 
given to them. The changes have had the 
effect of paralyzing the good work that was 
being done among the Indians.”—An im¬ 
portant bill concerning the EDUCATION OF 
Indian children was passed by the Senate 
on February 29. It makes it the duty of 
the Secretary of the Interior to establish an 
industrial boarding-school on every Indian 
reservation upon which there may be located 
any Indian tribe numbering five hundred or 
more adult Indians. 

TION of Oregon was defeated, on November 
8, by a majority of 7,685.—An exciting elec¬ 
tion was held on November 26, in Atlanta 
(Georgia), to determine whether the sale of 
liquor should be prohibited in that city. The 
majority against prohibition was 1,128.—The 
majority against the proposed prohibition 
amendment in Tennessee was 27,693.—A 
very important decision was rendered by the 
United States Supreme Court, on Decem¬ 
ber 5,in the Kansas prohibition cases. The 
Court sustained the right of a State, under its 
“ police power,” to suppress the manufac¬ 
within its limits, without compensation to 
the distiller or liquor-dealer for the value 
of the property destroyed by such action. 
The right of A State to pass prohibi¬ 
tory laws is thus fully upheld. —In¬ 
ternal-Revenue Commissioner Miller ren¬ 

dered in December a decision of importance 
in prohibition States, holding that the lists 
of liquor-dealers who have paid internal- 
revenue taxes are public property, and can 
be inspected or copied at any time in the 
offices of the local collectors.—A high-li¬ 
by the New Jersey Legislature early 
in March, after having been vetoed by the 
Governor. The license-fees vary from $100 
to $250, and in any county, on the petition 
of one-tenth of the voters, an election on 
the question of license or no license is to 
be ordered by the Circuit Court. A vote 
against license is not to prohibit the manu¬ 
facture of liquors in such county. The pen¬ 
alties for violating the law are very strict.— 
A High-License bill was passed by the 
Assembly of the New York Legislature, 
on March 29, by a vote of 66 to 61. Only 
one Democrat voted for it ; six Republicans 
voted in the negative. The bill fixes the 
minimum full liquor license fee at $300 and 
the maximum at $1,000 ; for beer licenses 
the minimum fee is $100 and the maximum 
$400. It is optional for boards of excise 
to fix three grades of licenses within these 
limits. The passage of the bill by the Senate 
is not certain.—On March 19 the Supreme 
Court of the United States decided that the 
Iowa law forbidding the carrying of liquor 
into the State by any railroad company was 
invalid, as being an unauthorized inter¬ 

ELECTIONS.—Elections were held 
throughout the country on November 8. 
In New York the Democratic State ticket 
was elected by an increased plurality, the 
head of the ticket receiving a plurality of 
17,077 votes. The Republicans retained their 
majority in both the Senate and Assembly. 
The Prohibition vote was 41,850, a slight in¬ 
crease. The entire Labor vote was 70,055, 
whereas in the previous year Henry George 
received in New York city over 68,000 
votes for Mayor. The vote for George for 
Secretary of State in New York city was 
only 37,377 in 1887. The special interest 
in the New York city election centred 
in the contest for District Attorney ; Nicoll 
was supported by the Republicans and the 
Independents, but he was defeated by Fel¬ 
lows by 22,242 votes. In Brooklyn, Chapin 
(Democrat) was elected Mayor by the nar¬ 
row plurality of 8S2.—In Massachusetts 
Ames (Republican) was reelected Governor 
by a plurality of 17,606 against 9,463 in 
1886. The Prohibitionists made a gain of 
2,695.—In Ohio Foraker (Republican) was 
reelected Governor by an increased plurality 
of 5,868.—The Democrats of Virginia re¬ 
tained control of the Legislature, although 
their total plurality in the election of Assem¬ 
blymen was only 486. On December 20 
John S. Barbour was elected Senator, to 
succeed Riddleberger ; Mahone received 48 
votes to 87 for Barbour.—Governor Larra- 



bee (Republican) was reelected in Iowa by 
16,160 against 6,979 in 1885.—The New 
Jersey Republicans elected a majority of 
both branches of the Legislature. The Pro¬ 
hibitionist vote showed a small falling-off. 
—In Pennsylvania the Republican State 
ticket was elected by an increased plurality 
of nearly 2,000.—There was a vote in Dela¬ 
ware in November, on the question of 
calling a Constitutional Convention. The 
effort to have a convention was defeated, 
there being 14,431 yeas and 398 nays, while 
15,640, a majority of the highest vote since 
1880, were required. 

cis L. Patton, D.D., was elected President 
of Princeton College on February 9, 
President McCosh having resigned ; Doctor 
Patton has since then signified his accep¬ 
tance. The Rev. Dr. Thomas S. Hastings 
was elected President of the Union Theo¬ 
logical Seminary, New York, on Febru¬ 
ary 7, but declined the honor. The corner¬ 
stone of the first building of Clark Uni¬ 
versity, at Worcester, Mass., founded by 
Jonas G. Clark, was laid October 22.—A 
commission appointed in 1886, consisting 
of Elbridge T. Gerry, Alfred P. Southwick, 
and Matthew Hale, reported to the New 
York Legislature, on January 16, in favor of 
execution of criminals.—A careful estimate 
made on January 1 placed it at 62,500,000. 
—A severe "blizzard” occurred in Da¬ 
kota and the North-west about the middle of 
January ; 235 persons were reported to have 
lost their lives. New York city was visited 
STORM on March 12 ; all means of commu¬ 
nication, except the elevated railroads, were 
suspended for several days. The storm ex¬ 
tended over most of the Middle and Eastern 
States, and railway travel was seriously in¬ 
terrupted during the greater part of a week. 
—The Merced Canal in California, the 
largest irrigation work ever constructed 
in this country, representing five years of 
time and $1,500,000 of expenditure, was 
opened on February 1.—Thomas N. New- 
bold, President of the New York State 
Board of Health, made a report to Governor 
Hill in December, severely criticising the 
New York Bay. He said that the health of 
the State and the country was seriously jeo¬ 
pardized by the inadequate facilities for the 
prevention and extinction of epidemics. 

OBITUARY.—The following persons, 
each of whom had been prominent in pub¬ 
lic life, have died during the last six months: 
Elihu B. Washburne, ex-Minister to 
France, October 22, aged 71 ; Rear-Admi¬ 
ral J. W. A. Nicholson, October 28, aged 
66; Brevet Brigadier-General Randolph 
B. Marcy, November 22, aged 76; Elias 
Warner Leavenworth, formerly Repre¬ 

sentative in Congress and Secretary of State 
of New York, November 25, aged 84 ; Al¬ 
gernon S. Sullivan, a prominent New 
York lawyer, December 4, aged 60 ; Gover¬ 
nor Joseph R. Bodwell of Maine, Decem¬ 
ber 15, aged 70 ; ex-Secretary of the Treas¬ 
ury Daniel Manning, December 24, aged 
56 ; Asa Gray, botanist, January 30, aged 
77 ; W. W. Corcoran, philanthropist, 
February 24, aged 89 ; A. Bronson Al- 
cott, March 4, aged 88 ; Henry Bergh, 
friend of animals, March 12, aged 65 ; ex- 
Governor Horace Fairbanks of Vermont, 
March 17, aged 68 ; ex-United States Sena¬ 
tor John P. King of Georgia, March ig, 
aged 88 ; Morrison R. Waite, Chief Jus¬ 
tice of the Supreme Court of the United 
States, March 23, aged 71 ; ex-Governor 
John T. Hoffman of New York, March 
24, aged 60; Commodore Robert B. Hitch¬ 
cock, March 24, aged 84 ; ex-Lieutenamt- 
Governor William Dorsheimer of New 
York, March 26, aged 56. 



GREAT BRITAIN—Until after the 
meeting of Parliament in February the 
Crimes Act was enforced in Ireland 
with GREAT severity by Chief Secretary 
Balfour. The appeal of William O’Brien 
against the sentence to three months’ im¬ 
prisonment for using seditious language at 
Mitchelstown was refused on October 31, 
and the finding of the lower court con¬ 
firmed. An attempt was made to rescue the 
prisoner forcibly, and bloodshed was threat¬ 
ened. O’Brien was hurried off to jail; he 
made an address, in which he said that he 
gladly went to prison in such a cause. After 
his incarceration he promised to resist to the 
death any attempt to subject him to the 
treatment of a common criminal, especially 
in wearing the criminal costume, and the 
governor of the jail asked the advice of the 
Prisons Board as to the course he should pur¬ 
sue. On November 2 O’Brien was quietly 
removed from the jail at Cork to the Tulla- 
more jail, fifty miles from Dublin. The 
Prisons Board directed that he should WEAR 
the prison uniform and be treated in 
every way like a COMMON PRISONER. He 
refused to put on the uniform, and was put 
on a diet of bread and water as a punish¬ 
ment. A crowd of 8,coo persons gathered in 
front of the jail, on November 7, and made 
a demonstration. The next day O’Brien 
was removed to the infirmary on a physi¬ 
cian’s order. Subsequently his clothes were 
taken away from him while he was asleep, 
with the intention of forcing him to put on 
the prison garb. O’Brien would not yield, 
however, but remained in bed until another 
suit of clothes was smuggled in to him by a 
friendly jailer. He was released from jail 
January 20. It was reported on January 28 



that another warrant had been issued for 
O’Brien's arrest. He went to the South of 
Europe two days later, ostensibly for the 
benefit of his health. He appeared in Par¬ 
liament for the first time on February 15. 
The same day it was announced that the 
Government had abandoned for the present 
the further prosecution of O’Brien.—After 
O'Brien’s arrest the one that attracted the 
greatest attention was that of WILFRID 
Blunt, a prominent, but rather erratic, Eng¬ 
lishman and a well-known philanthropist. An 
indignation meeting called at Woodford, Ire¬ 
land, October 23, by the British Home Rule 
Union, was proclaimed. Mr. Blunt was to 
preside. When he and others mounted 


meeting. A conflict with the police en¬ 
sued, Mr. Blunt was violently arrested, and 
more than thirty persons were hurt. Mr. 
Blunt, on the 27th, was found guilty of violat¬ 
ing the Crimes Act, and sentenced to two 
months’ imprisonment. He appealed and 
was released on bail. Early in January his 
sentence was affirmed and he went to jail, 
the first Englishman incarcerated un¬ 
der the Crimes Act. He put on the 
prison garb under protest ; subsequently he 
refused to wear it any longer. The justices 
ordered that he be placed in a better room, 
but at the end of January he was still con¬ 
fined in a cell. Mr. Blunt brought an action 
against Police-Magistrate Byrne, of Lough- 
rea, for $25,000 damages for false imprison¬ 
ment ; this was tried in Dublin, beginning 
February 11 and lasting a week ; the jury 
disagreed.— The second trial of T. D. 
Sullivan, Lord Mayor of Dublin, for 
printing in his paper reports of meetings of 
suppressed branches of the National League, 
took place on December 2, and resulted in 
his conviction. He was sentenced to two 
months’ imprisonment, without labor. He 
refused to appeal, saying that he would 
“ suffer his punishment proudly. ” — 
Other prominent men punished under the 
Crimes Act were the following : Mr. Sheehy, 
M. P., Edward Harrington, M. P., Timothy 
Harrington, M. P., Father Matthew Ryan, 
William J. Lane, M. P., Thomas Byrne, 
John Hayden, Joseph R. Cox, M. P., Father 
McFadden, and Mr. Blane, M. P. Patrick 
O’Brien, M. P., was sentenced on February 
8 to three months’ imprisonment by the Kil¬ 
kenny court, for advising tenants not to pay 
rent. He was released on appeal. On Feb¬ 
ruary 10 he was arrested just outside the 
Parliament buildings, being mistaken for 
Mr. Gilhooly, M. P., for whom the police 
were looking. The arrest caused great ex¬ 
citement. J. D. Pyne, M. P., was arrested 
at the same time, taken to Ireland, and sen¬ 
tenced for three months. He had long eluded 
the police, and at one time barricaded himself 
in Lisfinney Castle and defied arrest. On 
March 6 Mr. Gilhooly was convicted under 
the Crimes Act, and sentenced to two months’ 

imprisonment ; he was released on appeal, 
but was at once rearrested for having as¬ 
saulted an inspector.—Inspector Brovvn- 
rigg and other constables were found 
guilty of murder by a coroner’s jury at 
Mitchelstown. This was in October. 
The Court of Queen’s Bench at Dublin, how¬ 
ever, granted a writ to quash the verdict.— 
A jury at Dublin, on December 7, rendered 
a verdict of acquittal in the case of O’Leary, 
one of the men charged with complicity 
in the murder of Constable Whelehan at 
Lisdoonvarna. The Attorney General an¬ 
nounced that he would not proceed with a 
capital charge against any of the seven prison¬ 
ers arrested for connection with the murder, 
but would have them all indicted for a mis¬ 
demeanor.—Speaking at Rathkeale, County 
Limerick, January 29, Michael Davitt said 
that the cardinal object of Irish agiiation 
was the total uprooting of the land¬ 
lords from the soil.— On February 1 the 
Marquis of Ripon and Mr. John Morley 
visited Dublin. They were received with 
great enthusiasm and spoke in furtherance 
of the Home-Rule cause.—A large meeting 
was held at Loughrea on February 10 ; an 
address was presented to Mr. Shaw-Lefevre, 
who said that he and his friends were ready 
to go to jail in order to vindicate a great pub¬ 
lic right. He denounced the arrest of Mr. 
Blunt as one of the most unjust things ever 
done.—Sir Thomas Henry Grattan Esmonde 
and Arthur O’Connor, members of Parlia^ 
ment, arrived in New York early in October 
and made a tour of the country, speaking in 
behalf of the Irish cause.—At a meeting of 
the National League in Dublin, on March 
13, it was stated that since the last meeting 
for the benefit of evicted tenants. The con¬ 
tributions received during the previous fort¬ 
night had been three times greater than 
those for the same period in 1887.—Reduc¬ 
tions of judicial rents were ordered by a 
Government Land Commission in Decem¬ 
ber; at League meetings throughout Ireland 
these reductions were declared to be insuffi¬ 
cient.— Considerable apprehension was 
felt in London during the autumn on ac¬ 
count of the demonstrations of the so called 
“unemployed.” A number of homeless 
people slept in Trafalgar Square, but there 
seems to have been a large element of 
Socialists and Anarchists who fomented the 
troubles. On October 8 200 persons pa¬ 
raded in a body through the principal streets 
of the West End and afterward held a 
meeting in the square. Another procession 
took place on October 14, when the crowd 
marched to the Mansion House and sought 
an interview with the Lord Mayor, and an¬ 
other on the 17th ; on both days there were 
some encounters with the police. 
Other more or less riotous demonstrations 
followed. On Sunday, October 23, several 
thousands, following a leader with a red 



flag, marched to Westminster Abbey, and 
1,200 of them entered the building. They 
interrupted the meeting with cheers and 
groans and laughter. A great riot oc¬ 
curred on Sunday, November 13, growing 
out of an attempt to hold a public meeting 
in Trafalgar Square. The meeting was 
forbidden on the ground that the square 
was Crown property. Four thousand police¬ 
men took possession of the approaches to the 
square at an early hour, and attacked and 
dispersed each group of paraders as it ar¬ 
rived in the vicinity. The paraders were 
headed by bands of music and carried ban¬ 
ners and mottoes. Fierce fights took place 
in the Strand, Northumberland Avenue, 
Whitehall, Pall Mall, and adjacent streets. 
One of the parading societies succeeded in 
entering the square, but was repulsed after a 
bloody fight, in which R. Cunningham Gra¬ 
ham, M. P., was seriously injured. Mr. 
Graham was subsequently arrested for at¬ 
tacking the police. At 4.30 P. M. the crowd 
in the neighborhood of the square, it was es¬ 
timated, numbered 100,000. Cavalry and 
infantry were summoned to the assistance of 
the police, but no charge was made, as the 
people began to disperse at dusk. A large 
number of policemen and others were 
slightly. Mr. Graham and John Burns, a 
Socialist leader, who was also arrested, were 
tried on January 18, were found guilty of tak¬ 
ing part in an unlawful assembly, and were 
each sentenced to six weeks’ imprisonment, 
without hard labor.—The Trafalgar Square 
matter was subsequently taken up in the 
House of Commons. Sir Charles Russell 
moved for the appointment of a committee 
to inquire as to the right of the Government 
to interfere with meetings there. Mr.Brad- 
laugh proposed an amendment directing at¬ 
tention especially to the conduct of the po¬ 
lice on November 13. Both were rejected.— 
At the Congress of the National Libe¬ 
ral Federation at Nottingham, Octo¬ 
ber 18, Mr. Gladstone reviewed the 
situation in Ireland. He advocated a 
statutory parliament in Dublin, subject to 
imperial control, and said that only one 
word—impertinence—could describe the ex¬ 
isting system of Irish government. He ad¬ 
mitted having used the words “Remember 
Mitchelstown ! ” He expressed entire con¬ 
fidence that, if a general election should be 
held at once, it would result in the return of 
a Parliament resolved to do justice to Ire¬ 
land. —The yearly report of the Federation 
predicted the early triumph of the Gladsto- 
nian cause and policy, approved the alliance 
between the English and Irish members of 
Parliament, and declared that most excellent 
moral results had been produced upon the 
Irish people by the conviction that they no 
longer stood alone, but that their political 
relations were being settled on a basis of 
justice, equality, and peace. The Congress 

resolved that, when the Irish question is 
settled, the disestablishment of the 
Church in Wales shall be made the 
leading point in the policy of the Liberal 
party.— Mr. Chamberlain made a tour of 
Ireland, beginning October 11. In his 
speech at Belfast he said that he did not 
intend to submit Ulster to a Dublin Parlia¬ 
ment, which, he remarked, would be simply 
a Dublin Tammany-Hall ring.— Sir Mi¬ 
chael Hicks-Beach made a speech at Bris¬ 
tol, on January 17, which was regarded as 
significant. He said that the Irish should 
have as great a voice in settling their 
own affairs as the Scotch now have, and 
that “ we must hand over to the local au¬ 
thorities everything possible that is consist¬ 
ent with the interests of the United King¬ 
dom.”—It was officially announced on Feb¬ 
ruary 15 that Sir Michael Hicks-Beach had 
been appointed President of the Board of 
Trade in the place of Lord Stanley of Pres¬ 
ton.— Parliament reassembled on Febru¬ 
ary 9. The Queen’s Speech said : “The 
measures which you passed last session for 
the benefit of Ireland have been care¬ 
fully carried into effect during the 
period since elapsed. The result of this le¬ 
gislation, so far as tested by this short expe¬ 
rience, is satisfactory. Agrarian crime has 
diminished, and the power of coercive con¬ 
spiracies has sensibly abated.”—The same 
evening Mr. Gladstone made a speech 
in which he said that where the Queen’s 
Address spoke of the careful administration 
of the Crimes Act, he would substitute for 
“careful” some very different word. He 
could not pass over the assertion that the 
Irish people under coercion had become 
more reconciled to law. He demanded 
official DATA in support of the alleged 
decrease of offences. He promised that the 
Opposition would assist in forwarding the 
Local Government Bill and other measures.— 
On February 10 Mr. Balfour, Chief Sec¬ 
retary for Ireland, answering Mr. Glad¬ 
stone, stated that the number OF PERSONS 
TRIED UNDER the Crimes Act had been 
659, of whom 229 were acquitted. In 1886 
the number of agrarian offences reached a 
total of 2,196, while in 1887 the total was 
only 1,837. The total number of cases of 
ordinary crime reached 1,963 in 1886; in 
1887 it was 1,663. The number of agrarian 
offences for the six months ending January, 
1887, was 455 ; for the same period ending 
January, 1888, it was 364 —A decrease of 
30 per cent. The number of persons being 
boycotted at the end of July, 1S87, was 
870, whereas now it was only 208. He de¬ 
clared that the condition of Ireland was 
GREATLY IMPROVED, and that the figures 
given justified coercion and proved the suc¬ 
cess of the Government’s policy.— John 
Morley replied that the period showing a 
decrease of crime included the six months’ 
calm during which eviction notices could 



not be executed. The diminution of boy¬ 
cotting was due, not to coercion, but to an 
entirely changed state of feeling, and a 
deeper sense of responsibility toward the 
Liberal members who were working to ob¬ 
tain justice for Ireland.— Mr. Parnell 
spoke on February 13. He asserted that 
his party had a special interest in facilitating 
business, and were prepared to go further 
than the Government in rules for expediting 
legislation. They confidently expected a 
better Government for Ireland in the 
near future. He moved this amendment 
to the address in reply to the Queen’s 
Speech: “ Humbly to represent to Her 

Majesty that only the remedial portion of 
the last session’s Irish legislation tended 
to diminish crime, whereas the repressive 
measures had done much to alienate the 
sympathy and respect of Her Majesty’s 
Irish subjects for the law, and that the 
administration of the Crimes Act, 
as well as much of the general action of 
the executive, had been harsh and par¬ 
tial.” —At this time a report on boycot¬ 
ting in Ireland was presented to Parlia¬ 
ment. It showed that in July, 1887, and 
January, 1888, the number of cases of boy¬ 
cotting was 768 and 362 respectively, and 
the number of persons boycotted 4,835 and 
2,075 respectively.— At a Cabinet council 
held on February 14, it was decided to in¬ 
struct the Irish executive to cease prose¬ 
cuting NEWSPAPERS for publishing reports 
of meetings of suppressed branches of the 
League.— William O’Brien spoke in the 
House of Commons on February 16. The 
Crimes Act, he said, was one of the most 
horrible measures ever directed against 
human liberties. It had not stamped out a 
single village club, and the Plan of Cam¬ 
paign was uncrippled. Mr. Balfour had 
failed to destroy the Irish organization, to 
weaken the spirit of the Irish people, or to 
degrade them in the eyes of the world.— 
The House, on February 22, negatived an 
amendment to the address in reply to the 
Queen proposing the creation of a tribunal 
on judicial rents in Scotland. The report 
on the address was adopted on February 23. 
—The next matter taken up was the revision 
of the rules of procedure, in which im¬ 
portant changes were made. It was de¬ 
cided to meet at 3 P. M., and adjourn at 1 
A. m., closing opposed business at midnight. 
closure was reduced from 200 to 100. The 
Speaker was empowered to suspend for the 
sitting grossly disorderly members, and at 
his discretion to take the vote of the House 
by a simple rising of the members.—Efforts 
were made in March to reform England’s 
MILITARY AND naval service. Lord Ran¬ 
dolph Churchill urged the appointment of a 
Royal Commission to recommend army re¬ 
form, and Lord Charles Beresford insisted 
on an entire change in the management of 

the navy. Both propositions were nega¬ 
tived.—On March 9 Mr. Goschen, Chancel¬ 
lor of the Exchequer, submitted a proposal 
rities bearing 2 % per cent, interest for 15 
years, and after that time 2^ per cent.— 
A Local Government bill for England 
and Wales was introduced on March 19. 
It establishes county councils (to be elected 
directly by the rate-payers) to control the 
county police and to wield the powers now 
exercised by the local authorities over gas- 
and water-works, artisans’ dwellings, the 
sale of food and drugs, sanitary conditions, 
etc. An important feature is the division 
of the whole country into urban and 
rural districts, London being created a 
county by itself under a Lord-Lieuten¬ 
ant. Mr. Gladstone called attention 
to the absence of any reference to Ire¬ 
land in the bill, and said that on his side 
it would be treated in a broad and candid 
spirit. —An attempt by Lord Roseberry to 
have a committee appointed to inquire into 
Lords, with a view to amending it, was re¬ 
jected by that body, on March 19, 97 to 50. 
—On March 21 the House of Commons re¬ 
fused, 328 to 243, to order to a second read¬ 
ing Mr. Parnell’s Arrears of Rent 
bill, which empowered the courts to order 
a reduction of arrears and costs of tenants 
under some circumstances, and contained 
other favorable provisions.—Mr. Goschen 
The total expenditure for the current year, 
he said, had been ^87,427,000, showing a 
saving of .£423,000 on the budget estimate. 
The total revenue was .£89,589,000, ,£1,- 
454,000 more than the estimate. For the 
coming year it was calculated that the total 
expenditure would be ,£86,910,000; the 
estimated revenue would be .£89,287,000. 
It was the plan, said the Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, to take a penny from the in¬ 
come tax ; and to make this good they pro¬ 
posed to lay various minor taxes. Mr. 
Goschen’s financial statement was pro¬ 
nounced admirable and greatly enhanced 
his reputation. —The most important of 
the bye-elections have been those held in 
the West Division of Southwark, February 
17, in Doncaster, February 24, in Deptford, 
February 29, and in the Gower division of 
Glamorganshire, March 28. In Southwark 
a Liberal was again elected, but by a largely 
increased majority. In Doncaster, which 
had been represented by a Liberal, the Gov¬ 
ernment won a surprising victory ; the 
Liberal majority of 268 was wiped out, and 
a Liberal-Unionist returned by a majority of 
211. Intense interest was aroused by the 
contest in Deptford, where Wilfrid Blunt 
was the Liberal candidate. He was defeated 
by 275 votes ; at the previous election the 
Conservative candidate was elected by over 
600 majority. In Gower the Liberal forces 



were divided, and the Liberal majority was 
reduced from 3,457 to only 606 .—The 

October 24, provides that the CANAL shall 
act of hostility shall be permitted at either 
of its approaches, or on its banks within a 
zone to be determined by an international 
commission; that belligerent Powers shall 
neither embark nor disembark troops or 
war materials on the canal, or in the ports 
of access.—At the same time a convention 
about the New Hebrides was signed, 
providing for the withdrawal of the French 
troops. The evacuation of the islands 
took place in March.—The following prom¬ 
inent Englishmen have died : A. J. Beres- 
FORD-Hope, M. P. for Cambridge Univer¬ 
sity and proprietor of the Saturday Review, 
October 20; Lord Lyons, long Minister 
at Paris, December 5 ; Sir Henry James 
Sumner Maine, the well-known political 
writer, February 4. The Most Rev. Dan¬ 
iel McGettigan, Archbishop of Armagh 
and Primate of all Ireland, died Decem¬ 
ber 3. The Parnellite party lost a valuable 
member by the death of Edmund Dwyer 
Gray, M. P., on March 27. 

CANADA.—A conference of leading men 
from five of the important provinces of 
Canada was held in Quebec in November, 
and a resolution was unanimously adopted 
trade between the United States and 
Canada.—On February 8 it was announced 
that Lord Lansdowne would succeed Lord 
Dufferin as Governor General of India, 
and that Lord Stanley of Preston would 
become Governor General of Canada.— 
There has been no little trouble in Mani¬ 
toba. The Harrison Ministry resigned 
on January 13. after an existence of barely 
six weeks, and the Liberals under Green- 
way’s leadership assumed the reins of power. 
Various defalcations were discovered by 
Prime-Minister Greenway ; these at first 
were reported to amount to $500,000, but 
later the sum was placed at $125,000.— 
The second session of the Sixth Par¬ 
liament of Canada was opened by the 
Governor General on February 23. In his 
speech he referred to the fisheries treaty, 
and hoped that it would be considered 
nations. He said that it was proposed to 
make the larger portion of the modem laws 
of England applicable to Manitoba and the 
North-west Territories. 

have been several war panics in Europe, 
and each Power is apparently ready for hos¬ 
tilities at a moment’s notice. Russia made 
a movement which was regarded by Austria 
as threatening, by massing troops on the 
Austrian and Rumanian frontier. 
Trouble between Germany and Russia 

seemed at one time imminent. An alliance 
between Russia and France was said in Feb¬ 
ruary to be in a forward condition, and 
something in the nature of an understanding 
was believed to exist between England and 
Italy. Bulgaria has continued to be a 
bone of contention.—Russia’s menaces were 
looked on as so serious that several war 
conferences were held in Vienna, in De¬ 
cember, to take measures for defence. Soon 
after an article appeared in the Military 
Gazette (official) of St. Petersburg, declaring 
that Germany and Austria had made a 
greater increase in their frontier forces and 
fortifications than Russia, and that the move¬ 
ments of Russian troops had been merely 
protective. Members of the Austrian re¬ 
serve who were in other countries were or¬ 
dered to be in readiness to return and join 
their commands by January 1.—On February 
3 the Austro-German treaty of October 
7, 1879, was made public. The treaty stipu¬ 
lated that, should either of the two countries 
be attacked by Russia, each is pledged to 
TARY force. Should either be attacked by 
any other Power, the other is to remain neu¬ 
tral, unless Russia assists the aggressor. 
The publication of this treaty of alliance was 
regarded as a warning to Russia. —A 
was announced, stipulated that, if France at¬ 
tacks either country, the other shall send 
300,000 men to the French frontier.— Bis¬ 
marck’s great speech in the Reichstag, on 
February 6, in the debate on the Military 
Loan Bill, had an important bearing on the 
situation. He had no immediate apprehen¬ 
sion of war, but he strongly urged Germany 
to be prepared. He considered the concen¬ 
tration of Russian troops on the frontier as 
threatening, but he saw no pretext for a 
Russian or a European war. He said : 
“ The warlike tendencies of France and Rus¬ 
sia drive us to defence ; the pike in France 
and Russia compel us to become carp.” “ If 
we are attacked, then the furor Teutonicut 
will flame out.” He made no reference to 
the relations between Austria and Russia.— 
Russia’s dissatisfaction with the situation 
in Bulgaria has steadily manifested itself, 
and negotiations have been going on with 
the other Powers for a readjustment. Rus¬ 
sia has never ceased to regard Prince P'er- 
DINAND as an intruder, and early in March, 
in accordance with the demands of Russia, 
to which several of the other Powers con¬ 
sented, THE Porte informed Ferdinand 
that his position in Bulgaria is illegal. 
England refused to advise the Sultan 
to take steps for the removal of Ferdinand 
before satisfactory measures were taken for 
the settlement of Bulgaria’s future after his 
removal.—The Council of Bulgarian Minis¬ 
ters decided not to reply to the Porte’s 
despatch declaring Ferdinand’s position 
illegal. — The Bulgarian Sobranye was 



opened October 27. Prince Ferdinand made 
an address, saying that the Government was 
working for the prosperity and greatness of 
Bulgaria, and that order, tranquillity, and 
security had been restored. M. Tutcheff 
was elected president of the Sobranye, which 
unanimously voted an address in reply to 
the Prince’s speech, assuring him of the 
support of the army and the people.—It 
was stated on good authority in London, 
about the middle of February, that there was 
an arrangement whereby, if Italy was at¬ 
tacked, an English fleet would protect 
the Italian coast. Questioned in the 
House of Commons, on February 22, Sir 
James Fergusson, Under Foreign Secretary, 
denied that any engagement had been en¬ 
tered into that was not known to Parlia¬ 
ment.—The appointment of Lord Dufferin 
as Ambassador to Rome was regarded as 
—On January 4 it was made known that 
President Carnot of France had given as¬ 
surances to Emperor William that while 
he remains at the head of the republic no 
French Government will be permitted to 
SION of Frederick to the throne of 
Germany is generally regarded as conserving 
the general peace of Europe, especially in 
view of the disposition which he manifested 
toward the Emperor of Austria and the 
President of France in writing them auto¬ 
graph letters. His uncertain health, how¬ 
ever, renders the future extremely doubtful. 

FRANCE.—A great military and so¬ 
cial scandal was caused in Paris, October 
7, when General Caffarel was suspended 
as Chief of the War Department staff, and 
sent to a military prison to be tried by a 
council of war for selling civil decora¬ 
tions. Two women, Madame Limousin 
and Madame Ratazzi, and General d’And- 
lau were also involved in the affair ; and 
in the house of Madame Limdusin were 
found some 300 letters to M. Daniel 
Wilson, son-in-law of President Gr£vy, 
which put Wilson in a bad light. General 
Caffarel was pronounced guilty of “ha¬ 
bitual dishonorable conduct,” and placed 
on the retired list. General Boulanger 
having declared that the prosecution of 
Caffarel was aimed at him (Boulanger), 
General Ferron, Minister of War, placed 
him under arrest, October 13, for thirty 
days, for giving improper information to 
reporters.—The French Chambers reas¬ 
sembled October 25. M. d’Omano, Bona- 
partist, moved that a committee be appointed 
to investigate the Caffarel-Wilson scandals, 
and this was carried, 379 to 155.—The same 
day there was a turbulent meeting at Tours, 
which was represented in the Chamber of 
Deputies by M. Wilson, and a resolution 
was adopted by a small majority, declaring 
that he had betrayed his trust and must 

resign. — President Gr£vy, on October 
28, declared that he would be unable to 
remain in the Elysee with a broken-up 
family, and expressed an intention to 
resign. He was, however, persuaded to 
reconsider the subject. — On November 
19, in the Chamber of Deputies, the Ex¬ 
treme Left moved an interpellation of the 
Government on the question of its domestic 
policy. A motion by the Ministry to post¬ 
pone the debate was rejected, 328 to 242. 
Prime-Minister Rouvier immediately an¬ 
—President Grevy, on the evening of 
November 24, handed his resignation to M. 
Rouvier, after having abandoned his at¬ 
tempts to form a Cabinet. The resignation 
was not announced, however. Finally, on 
December 2, M. Gr£vy did resign. The 
election of his successor took place on 
Saturday, December 3, after and amid great 
excitement, during which an outbreak of the 
mob was feared at any moment. The Re¬ 
publicans held a caucus at Versailles that 
morning, in which Ferry had the lead. The 
fear of a riot in case he was elected probably 
led the factions to unite upon M. Sadi- 
Carnot, who was elected. The balloting 
for the election of President began at 2.15 
P.M. at Versailles. The result of the first 
ballot, total vote 849, was : Sadi-Carnot, 
303 ; Ferry, 212 ; Saussier, 14S ; De 
Freycinet, 76 ; Appert, 72 ; Brisson, 26 ; 
Floquet, 5 ; other candidates, 7. Before 
the second ballot the members of the Left 
groups held a meeting. Ferry announced 
his resolution to withdraw in favor of 
Carnot, and De Freycinet did likewise. 
The second and last ballot resulted thus : 
Carnot, 616; Saussier, 1S6; Ferry, ii; De 
Freycinet, 5; Appert, 5; Pyat, 1.—Excite¬ 
ment was renewed in Paris just a week after 
the election, by an attempt to assassinate 
M. Ferry in the hall of the Chamber of 
Deputies, by a man who called himself Au- 
bertin. He fired three shots at M. Ferry, 
two of which wounded him slightly. Au- 
bertin said that he belonged to a band of 
revolutionists.—There was some difficulty 
IN forming A ministry, but at length one 
was organized by M. Tirard, as follows : 
M. Tirard, Prime Minister and Minis¬ 
ter of Finance ; M. Flourens, Minister 
of Foreign Affairs ; M. FALLifeRES, Minis¬ 
ter of Justice ; M. Sarrien, Minister of the 
Interior; General Logerot, Minister of 
War ; M. de Mahy, Minister of Marine ; 
M. Loubat, Minister of Public Works ; M. 
Dautresme, Minister of Commerce ; M. 
Viette, Minister of Agriculture ; M. Faye, 
Minister of Public Instruction.— President 
Carnot’s message to Parliament ex¬ 
pressed the hope that a spirit of conciliation 
would continue to pervade both houses. 
The part relating to the foreign policy of 
France was couched in the most pacific 
terms. —The declaration of the Minis- 



Ters, read in the Chamber of Deputies, De¬ 
cember 15, stated that the Cabinet’s sole 
ambition was to continue the work of 
concord. It demanded the united Repub¬ 
lican vote upon the Ministerial scheme of 
military legislation. The appropriations 
asked by the Government were voted, 521 
to 13.—About the middle of December the 
Court of Arraignment at Paris pronounced 
that no case had been made out against 
M. Wilson ; but later another inquiry 
showed that a manufacturer had bought a 
decoration of the Legion of Honor for 
60.000 francs, and that Wilson and his 
accomplices shared the spoils. Wilson was 
put on trial before the Correctional Tribunal 
on February 16. He was convicted on 
March I, and sentenced TO two years’ 
IMPRISONMENT, to pay a fine of 3,000 francs, 
and to be deprived of his civil rights for five 
years. Three others charged with similar 
offences were sentenced for eight months, 
four months, and one month respectively. 
Madame Ratazzi was acquitted. Wilson 
appealed from the decision, and, on March 
26, the Court of Appeal reversed it and ac¬ 
quitted him, on the ground that there had 
been no violation of existing laws.— 
General Caffarel and Madame Limousin 
were sentenced on March 20, the former to 
pay a fine of 3.000 francs, and the latter to 
six months’ imprisonment. — The trien¬ 
January 5. The returns showed the elec¬ 
tion of 57 Republicans and 21 Conservatives. 
—The Chambers reassembled January 10. 
M. Floquet was reelected President of the 
Chamber of Deputies. In the Senate M. 
Carnot, father of President Carnot (who has 
since died), as the senior member, took the 
chair ; M. Leroyer was reelected President. 
—In spite of M. Tirard’s protests, the 
Chamber, on February 16, resolved to con¬ 
sider an amendment reducing the interest 
on the floating debt by 3,000,000 francs. 
Despite the appeal of the Government, it 
also voted to consider a measure providing 
for reductions in the salaries of treasury 
paymasters. Premier Tirard thereupon 
threatened to resign. —On February 23 
M. Tirard said in the Chamber that he 
would regard the vote on the clause in the 
budget relating to the secret service as a 
question of confidence in the Ministry. The 
clause was adopted, 248 to 220.—A crisis 
occurred on March 30, when the Chamber, 
267 to 237, despite the Government’s oppo¬ 
sition, voted for urgency for the Extreme 
Left's bill providing for the revision of 
the Constitution. The Ministry im¬ 
mediately resigned. M. Floquet was 
summoned to form a Cabinet.—In the 
elections held on February 26 to fill vacan¬ 
cies in the Chamber some 54,000 votes were 
cast in various departments for General 
Boulanger. The matter was taken up in 
the Council of Ministers, when the General 

denied that he had anything to do with it. 
A few days later he wrote a letter to the 
Minister of War, expressing a wish that his 
friends would not waste their votes in 
attempting to elect him to an office which 
he could not accept. On March 15 General 
Boulanger was deprived of his command 
on the ground that he had visited Paris three 
times without permission ; on two of these 
occasions he was said to have been in dis¬ 
guise, wearing spectacles and pretending to 
be lame. The General claimed that he had 
only gone to Paris to visit his sick wife, and 
that he had been haishly treated. His 
friends proposed at once to make him a 
candidate IN all ELECTIONS, as a national 
protest. The Court of Inquiry in the Bou¬ 
langer case decided against the General, 
and, on March 26, President Carnot signed 
a decree placing him on the retired list 
of THE army. General Boulanger at once 
became a candidate for the Chamber of 
Deputies in the Department du Nord. 

GERMANY.— William I., Emperor of 
Germany, died in Berlin on the morning of 
March g, after a brief illness. He lacked but 
a few days of being 91 years old, and the ex¬ 
citement attending his death was diminished 
by his advanced age. There was great con¬ 
cern, however, on account of the preca¬ 
rious health of the Crown Prince, who 
had passed the winter in San Remo, Italy, 
where, on February 9, he had undergone the 
operation of tracheotomy. His illness is 
believed to be cancerous in its nature, 
but no positive evidence of cancer has been 
discovered. The six physicians in charge 
of the case, on March 6, united in an offi¬ 
cial statement, in which they denied that 
any serious differences of opinion existed 
among them, and said that a dangerous 
NENT. Two days before this statement was 
made, it was announced that the Crown 
Prince’s eldest son, Prince William, had 
been empowered to sign royal decrees 
and ordinances, should occasion therefor 
arise. The death of the Emperor was ex¬ 
pected on March 8, and on that day an 
Imperial decree, dated November 17, 1887, 
was promulgated, declaring Prince Wil¬ 
liam to be the representative of the Em¬ 
peror in State affairs. The last official 
act of the Emperor was, on the day before 
his death, to sign the order proroguing the _ 
Reichstag. The Crown Prince succeeded 
to the throne as Frederick I. of Germany 
and Frederick III., King of Prussia. On 
March 12 the new Emperor addressed a pro¬ 
clamation to his people, in which he said : 
“ I shall make it my whole endeavor to con¬ 
tinue the fabric in the spirit in which it 
was founded—to make Germany the cen¬ 
tre of peace and to foster her welfare.” 
At the same time appeared a letter written by 
him to Prince Bismarck, setting forth the 
principles on which he would direct the Gov- 



eminent. He desired the unabated mainte¬ 
nance of the army and navy, and pledged 
himself to maintain religious toleration, and 
to advance financial reform. T he Emperor’s 
health seemed to improve under the ex¬ 
ertion made necessary by his accession to 
power, and, contrary to expectation, no ill 
effects followed his long journey from San 
Remo to Berlin and his exchanging the cli¬ 
mate of Italy for the rigors of winter in Ger¬ 
many. The funeral of the dead Emperor 
took place on March 16, and was a splendid 
pageant. On March 19 messages from Em¬ 
peror Frederick to the various legislative 
bodies of the Empire were made public. 
They breathed the same spirit as his procla¬ 
mation of the 12th. A decree was signed on 
March 21, authorizing Crown Prince 
William to represent the Emperor in 
the transaction of official business 
in case the Emperor should be unable to 
act for himself.—Aside from the anxiety 
caused by the condition of the Crown Prince 
and the illness and death of the Emperor, 
and the part which Germany has played in 
the more or less warlike relations of the 
Great Powers, not a great deal of importance 
has occurred in the German Empire in the 
past six months.—The Reichstag re¬ 
assembled on November 24, and received 
a message from the Emperor in reference 
to the Crown Prince’s ailment.—A bill 
was introduced on December 15, author¬ 
izing the expulsion of all Socialists who 
have incurred penalties for violations of the 
Anti-Socialist law or by belonging to secret 
societies, and permitting the punishment of 
any one taking part in a Socialist Congress. 
Under this bill most of the Socialist members 
of the Reichstag could be expelled from 
Germany. The bill gave rise to an animated 
controversy, and various amendments were 
proposed. The Government’s stringent 
proposals for expatriation and the like were 
finally stricken out, and the existing laws 
on the subject were continued in operation 
for two years longer.—The Military Loan 
Bill, which increased the army 700,000 men 
and authorized an expenditure for the pur¬ 
pose of about $70,000,000, was passed on 
February 8.—The Prussian budget for 
1886-7 showed a surplus of 16,000,000 
marks, while the budget for 1887-8 left 
an available surplus of 28,000,000 marks.— 
A statement given out in the fall showed 
that, for the first half of the current financial 
year, there was in the revenue of the Ger¬ 
man Empire an increase from customs du¬ 
ties of 10,300,000 marks, from the Post-office 
4,000,000, from State railways 1,250,000, and 
a decrease from the sugar tax of 500,000 and 
from the spirit tax of 2,000,000 marks. 

RUSSIA.—It was reported early in Octo¬ 
ber that M. Delianoff, Minister of Public 
Instruction, had been dismissed because of 
his rigorous exercise of power over students 
in the gymnasia, which caused general dis¬ 

content among the people.—The Chief 
Press Censor at St. Petersburg was dismissed 
in October for exacting money for favor¬ 
for censorship.—On November 3 it was re¬ 
ported that Another Nihilist plot had 
been discovered and the conspirators ar¬ 
rested. At the same time came reports of 
great commercial distress.— The Tsar and 
Tsarina visited Berlin, on November 18, 
and an improvement in the relations between 
Russia and Germany resulted from the visit. 
Certain letters which had exasperated the 
Tsar were pronounced by Prince Bismarck 
to be forgeries. The popular welcome 
to the distinguished guests in Berlin was 
hearty.—On January 2 eight Nihilists, 
including the Cossack, Tschernoff, who were 
condemned to death for making an attempt 
on the life of the Tsar during his visit to the 
Don Cossack country, were hanged at 
St. Petersburg. There were five men and 
three women.— Another plot, said to have 
been of unusual magnitude, as regards both 
the number and the position of the persons 
implicated, was made known on January 10, 
when it was announced that the Tsar would 
make a shorter stay in St. Petersburg than 
was intended at the time of the New-Year’s 
reception. Several army officers were 
among those arrested.—General Gresser, 
Prefect of St. Petersburg, on the night of 
January 12, ordered that numerous houses 
in the city be searched. The result was 
the arrest of 887 persons.—On January 30 
the St. James’s Gazette (London) printed a re¬ 
markable story to the effect that an army offi¬ 
cer in St. Petersburg, who had been taken to a 
hospital mortally wounded, admitted that he 
had shot himself in order to avoid the NECES¬ 
SITY of shooting the Tsar. He said that 
he was a member of a secret society, which 
had balloted to decide who should assassi¬ 
nate the Tsar, and that the lot had fallen on 
him. Great efforts were made by the au¬ 
thorities to keep the matter secret.—The 
Russian Senate, in special session for the 
consideration of State crimes, in January, 
condemned to death seven prisoners who 
were accused of belonging to a secret so¬ 
ciety having in its possession bombs and a 
secret printing-press. The sentences were 
afterward commuted to long terms of im¬ 
prisonment.—In February M. Vishnegradski, 
Minister of Finance, submitted to the Coun¬ 
cil of the Empire a law to establish a me¬ 
tallic standard preparatory to the CONSO¬ 
LIDATION of the Russian monetary cur¬ 
rency. The object of it was to bring gold 
and silver into circulation and prepare the 
way for a compulsory metal standard. 

ITALY.—Signor Magliani, Minister of 
Finance, presented the budget in the Cham¬ 
ber of Deputies on December 17. The es¬ 
timates for the ensuing year showed a 
deficit of $2,660,000. This, the Minister 
explained, was due to the expedition to Mas- 



sowah. The vote of the Chamber, he said, 
had already met a part of the additional ex¬ 
pense, and the remainder would be covered 
by means at the disposal of the Treasury.— 
The golden jubilee of the Pope, in honor 
of the fiftieth anniversary of his ordination 
to the priesthood, was celebrated on Janu¬ 
ary r. There was an immense crowd in St. 
Peter’s. The Pope received numerous and 
costly presents from all parts of the world.— 
On February n the Senate rejected, by a 
vote of 60 to 32, a bill empowering the Gov¬ 
ernment to reorganize the central adminis¬ 
tration. Prime-Minister Crispi had an¬ 
nounced that he would accept the passage 
of this bill as a vote of confidence ; but the 
expected resignation of the Ministry did not 
follow.—The Italian forces in Abyssinia 
have been increased, until there is an army 
of about 25,000 men there. Several skir¬ 
mishes have occurred with the forces of 
King John, but there has been NO decisive 
battle. The Abyssinians have refused all 
overtures looking toward arbitration, and it 
is estimated that they can raise an army of 
100,000 men. Some of the allies of the 
Italians have deserted to the enemy, taking 
with them the arms and equipments with 
which the Italians had supplied them. At 
the end of March, King John made over¬ 
tures for peace. 

Council at Vienna decided, on December 19, 
to grant the Minister of War a credit of 15,- 
000,000 florins. The smallness of the grant 
was held to be proof that Austria did not in¬ 
tend to take aggressive measures.—A revi¬ 
sion of the Military-Service law was 
announced in January. The age of liability 
to military duty was raised from 20 to 21, 
and other changes were made.—The Minis¬ 
ter of War told the Budget Committee, on 
February 6, that an increase of the Landwehr 
staff officers was absolutely necessary, and he 
asked an extra credit of $250,000 for that pur¬ 
pose. It was also necessary that the number 
of Landwehr recruits in training should be 
temporarily raised.—In the lower house of 
the Reichsrath, on February 7, the Minis¬ 
ter of Commerce asked for a supplemental 
credit of 1,240,000 florins for the construc¬ 
tion of State railways.—The Austro-Ita- 
lian treaty of commerce was approved in 
February, as was also the bill to prolong the 
treaty of commerce with Germany.—The 
lower house of the Hungarian Diet, on Feb¬ 
ruary 20, adopted the budget by a large 
majority and passed a vote of confidence in 
the Government. The convention delimit¬ 
ing the frontier between Hungary and Ruma¬ 
nia was approved about the end of Febru¬ 
ary.—On February 29 it was stated that the 
Government were arranging for a consider¬ 
able increase in the army. The present 
military law, which expires in 1889, fixes the 
strength of the army at 600,000 men, exclu¬ 
sive of the L.andwehr. 

SPAIN.—It was stated in January that 
ex-Queen Isabella was to be exiled from 
Spain ; later it was announced that she 
would be allowed to live in Seville.—The 
Spanish floating debt of $33,000,000 has 
been refunded for five years at 3 percent.— 
In the Chamber of Deputies, on February 7, 
Senor Romero censured the Government for 
permitting military interference at Rio Tinto 
and for the resulting bloodshed. After an 
exciting debate, his proposal of censure was 
rejected by a vote of 176 to 19.—On January 
31 the Minister of Foreign Affairs declared 
that the Government had no thought of mak¬ 
ing fresh conquests, but only wished to 
maintain the integrity of Morocco.—An at¬ 
tempt to censure the Minister of Foreign 
Affairs for his action in connection with 
American claims for losses sustained during 
the Cuban insurrection, was defeated, on 
February 24, by 170 to 48.—The Senate, on 
February 27, approved a bill ESTABLISHING 
TRIAL by JURY. —The health of the infant 
King is not good, epilepsy having mani¬ 
fested itself.—The Spanish Government has 
decided to celebrate the fourth centenary 


election for members of the Rumanian 
Chamber of Deputies, in February, re¬ 
sulted in the return of 179 supporters of 
the Government, 48 Opposition mem¬ 
bers, and 5 Independents. The mem¬ 
bers of the Cabinet tendered their re¬ 
signations early in March, and M. 
Ghika undertook to form a Ministry. He 
failed, and M. Cogalniceano undertook the 
task. Subsequently the Cabinet was re¬ 
formed without change in its personnel.— 
The Belgian Premier announced to the 
Chamber of Deputies, in December, that 49 
foreign governments had agreed to take 
part in a conference to establish an office for 
lative documents. The Belgian Minister of 
Finance stated, on February 24, that the 
budget for 1889 showed an estimated sur¬ 
plus of 9,000,000 francs.—A protectionist 
Ministry was formed in Sweden, in Feb¬ 
ruary, with M. Bildt as President. 

Lesseps announced to the French Academy 
of Sciences, on November 1, that the Pa¬ 
nama Canal would be opened on Febru¬ 
ary 3, 1890. The work would not be com¬ 
pleted, but passage would be free for twenty 
ships a day. His son, Victor de Lesseps, in 
a letter published on November 9, repeated 
this promise, and said that no further loan 
would be required. —A few weeks later 
there was made public the report of SeNor 
Tanco Armero, agent of the Colombian 
Government, who had officially inspected 
the canal. He. said that the total excava¬ 
tion necessary to open the canal amounted 
to 161,000,000 cubic metres ; the quantity 
taken out at the end of last August, accord- 



ing to the company’s figures, was 33,925,230 
metres, leaving 127,074,770 metres to be re¬ 
moved. The estimated cost of completing 
the canal was $600,000,000. To the claims 
of the company that 15,000 men are em¬ 
ployed on the work, and that the effective 
force of the men and machinery was equiva¬ 
lent to 615,000 men, Senor Armero said he 
firmly believed that there had never been 
more than 5.000 men employed. The truth 
was that the greater number of the working- 
sections were almost deserted. —M. de 
Lesseps attempted to obtain from the French 
Cabinet authority to issue lottery loans, 
but, at a meeting on January 20, the Minis¬ 
ters unanimously refused their consent. De 
Lesseps accordingly issued a circular, saying 
that he was prepared to appeal directly 
to the public with a class of bonds giving 
fullest guarantees. He urged shareholders 
to request the Deputies to bring the matter 
before the Chamber for a full public in¬ 
quiry.—On February 4 it was stated that 
agents of the company were negotiating 
with the Deputies of the Right for a bill 
permitting the issue of a lottery loan of 775,- 
000,000 francs.—At a meeting of the Canal 
Company in Paris, March 1, it was made 
known that the directors had consented to 
the construction of locks, by means of 
which vessels may traverse the canal in 1890. 
After the canal shall have been thus opened, 
the work of excavation will be prosecuted. 
De Lesseps expressed absolute confidence 
in the completion of the canal. —A 
bill was brought into the Chamber of Deputies 
on March 5, authorizing a lottery loan of 
24,000,000 francs. The Committee of Initia¬ 
tive agreed to consider a proposal to author¬ 
ize a lottery loan of 340,000,000 francs, and, 
on March 26, the Chamber, 290 to 170, de¬ 
cided to take the proposal into consideration. 

MEXICO.—An amendment to the Con¬ 
stitution permitting the election of the 
same person to the Presidency for two con¬ 
secutive terms, having been ratified by both 
houses of Congress, was officially promulgat¬ 
ed on October 23.—A loan of ^10,500,000, 
which Congress authorized President Diaz 
to negotiate, was consummated in January 
through the German financier, Herr Bleich- 

AFRICA.—No definite news in regard to 
Henry M. Stanley’s expedition for the 
relief of Emin Bey has been received. It is 
not thought, however, that he has met with 
any misfortune.—In Egypt, Ismail Pacha’s 
claims have been settled, he receiving the 
palaces formerly belonging to him, property 
ip Stamboul valued at $2,500,000, the com¬ 
mutation of his civil allowances at fourteen 
years’ purchase, and $500,000 in cash for 
crops.— Suakim was attacked by a large 
force of rebels on March 4. The attacking 
party was defeated after four hours’ fighting. 
The attack is said to have been led by Osman 
Digna.—News of the death of the Sultan 

of Zanzibar, Bargash Bin Said, reached 
London on March 27. He was about fifty- 
five years of age, and succeeded his brother 
in 1870. Said Khalif succeeds to the throne. 

SOUTH AMERICA.—There was a 


December. President Nunez was suc¬ 
ceeded by General Payan, a lawyer, who 
has occupied important posts in the judi¬ 
ciary and in the army. He has been Presi¬ 
dent of both houses of the Congress, and 
was Minister of War under Nunez. He is 
regarded as possessing sound judgment, self- 
possession, and valor. He at once issued a 
decree announcing the full liberty of the 
press, and, on January 1, granted liberty to 
expatriated citizens to return to their coun¬ 
try and their homes.—All export duties 
imposed by the Argentine Republic were 
abolished on January 1.— Great Britain 
is reported to have seized a valuable gold¬ 
mining tract in Venezuela. There has long 
been a dispute about the boundary between 
this country and British Guiana.—In Uru¬ 
guay, Senor Feresedo Torres has been 
elected President of the Senate, and Senor 
Magarinos President of the Chamber of 
Deputies.— Brazilian planters owning 
2,500 slaves agreed in December to set all 
their slaves free, and took steps for the 
general emancipation of all the slaves 
in their province not later than the end 
of 1890.—The Brazilian Ministry an¬ 
nounced in March, is as follows: Premier 
and Minister of Finance, Senor Alfredo ; 
Foreign Affairs, Senor Prado ; Marine, 
Senor Vierra ; War, Senor Coelho- Almeida ; 
Justice, Senor Vianna ; Agriculture, Senor 
Silva; Interior, Senor Costa Pereira.— 
Ecuador has elected a new President, Gen¬ 
eral Florf.s, now Minister-Resident at 
Paris. He will take office about July 1. He 
has been in the public service twenty years. 

ASIA.—A sweeping imperial rescript, 
dated December 25, was published in Japan 
on the following day. It laid a ban on all 
secret societies and assemblies, and author¬ 
ized the police to put a stop to open-air meet¬ 
ings. With the sanction of the Minister of 
Home Affairs they were to warn away, de¬ 
port, or imprison all suspected persons liv¬ 
ing within eight miles of the palace ; and 
to the Cabinet were given full powers to 
“ proclaim districts imperilled by popu¬ 
lar excitement,” and practically to put the 
whole body of the people therein under mar¬ 
tial law. Within a few days several hun¬ 
dred persons—children, boys, and men— 
were summarily removed from Tokio or cast 
into prison for not obeying the police. The 
ostensible cause of this policy was the dis¬ 
covery of a plot to murder Count Ito, 
the Minister-President of State. As a mat¬ 
ter of fact, it followed immediately on the 
arrival in the capital of a deputation of peo¬ 
ple who petitioned for redress from excess¬ 
ive taxation.— China has been visited by 



TWO AWFUL calamities. The Yellow 
River overflowed on September 28, in the 
province of Ho-Nan, inundating a dozen or 
more populous cities, 7,000 square miles of 
rich plain being turned into an immense lake. 
The Imperial Commissioner who investigated 
the affair, reported that the total number of 
persons drowned was over 100,000 and that 
the number made destitute was 1,800,000. 
A severe earthquake occurred in the pro¬ 
vince of Yunnan, on December 15, and the 
mortality was frightful. In one town 5,000 
persons were reported killed, and in another 
10,000 ; elsewhere accurate estimates were 
impossible.—The King of Corea decided 
in the autumn to despatch ministers to 
England, France, Germany, Russia, and the 
United States. China consented to this 
arrangement with great reluctance. It was 
believed that Russian agents instigated the 
King's action.—An English syndicate has 
obtained a concession from the King of 
Siam for the construction of a railway 
from Bangkok to Zimme. 

elected Legislature cut down the salaries 
of all State officials and materially reduced 
the King’s salary. This was in the autumn. 
In December the Legislature adopted reso¬ 
lutions denying the King’s veto right. The 
matter was taken up by the Supreme Court, 
which finally decided that under the con¬ 
stitution of 1S87 the King’s veto right is a 
personal one, and that he is not required to 
consult his Cabinet in exercising that right. 

NEW SOUTH WALES.—The celebra¬ 
tion of the centenary of New South 
Wales occurred on January 24, the anniver¬ 
sary of the landing of the first governor of 
the colony. A statue of Queen Victoria 
was unveiled in the presence of the gov¬ 
ernors of all the Australian colonies. The 
ceremonies extended over a week, and in¬ 
cluded the dedication of Centennial Park 
and the opening of the Agricultural Society’s 


Recent Books. —Among the more note¬ 
worthy books of the last half year biographi¬ 
cal and historical works predominate. Mr. 
J. E. Cabot, Emerson's chosen literary ex¬ 
ecutor, in his Memoir of Ralph Waldo 
Emerson , 2 vols (Houghton, Mifflin & Co.), 
gives a biography which from its complete¬ 
ness and its sober spirit is adequate and sa¬ 
tisfactory. The Life and Letters of Charles 
Darwin , 2 vols. (New York : D. Appleton 
& Co.), by his son, Francis Darwin, is so ed¬ 
ited as to be essentially an autobiography of 
the great scientist. Professor Huxley con¬ 
tributes a valuable chapter. (Reviewed in 
New Princeton Review for March.) 

Mr. J. A. Symonds has made a new trans¬ 
lation, in two volumes, of the autobiography 
of Benvenuto Cellini. This translation is 
superior to the current one, Roscoe’s un¬ 

improved revision of Nugent (1771). Mr. 
Symonds in his introduction undertakes to 
defend Cellini’s veracity—a large task. 

Two delightful volumes of personal remi¬ 
niscence are My Autobiography and Remi¬ 
niscences, by W. P. Frith, R. A., covering 
fifty years of life as an artist, and What I 
Remember, by T. Adolphus Trollope, writing 
at seventy-seven ; full of anecdotes of lite¬ 
rary people (New York : Harper & Brothers). 

The Life of William Barnes by his daugh¬ 
ter, Lucy Baxter, is a well-executed memo¬ 
rial of a poet whose poems in the Dorset dia¬ 
lect have a naturalness and pathos not unlike 
those of Burns, and deserve to be more widely 
known, as they certainly entitle their author to 
a worthy place among the poets of the Victo¬ 
rian era. 

We have further, Robert Southey: the story 
of his life written in his letters, edited by 
John Dennis (D. Lothrop & Co.) ; Life 
of Leo XILL: from an authentic memoir 
furnished by his order, by Bernard O’Reilly 
(Sampson Low), and a number of volumes 
continuing well-known series: Patrick 
He 7 iry, by Moses Coit Tyler, “ American 
Statesmen” series; Benjamin Franklin, by 
J. B. McMaster, “American Men of Letters” 
series (Houghton, Mifflin & Co.); D. G. Ros¬ 
setti, by Joseph Knight; Keats, byW.Rossetti; 
Shelley, by W. Sharp; Goldsmith, by Aus¬ 
tin Dobson; Walter Scott, by C. D. Yonge; 
Burns, by John Stuart Blackie,—these last 
in the “ Great Writers” series (Scott). 

Mr. George Saintsbury’s History of Eliza¬ 
bethan Literature is the first part to be is¬ 
sued, though the second in order, of a new 
general history of% English literature, to 
which Mr. Stopford Brooke contributes the 
earlier part, and Mr. Gosse and Mr. Dowden 
the later periods. 

Mr. E. C. Stedman, in a thirteenth edition 
of his Victotian Poets, has revised the work 
and added a chapter, bringing his survey 
down to the Jubilee year. Few books of 
litehary criticism have been so deservedly 

In Modern Italian Poets: Essays and 
Versions, Mr. W. D. Howells writes appre¬ 
ciatively and attractively of the poets and 
poetry of the last century. His versions are 
less happy.—Mr. Horace E. Scudder, in 
Men and Letters, gathers up a number of 
magazine articles containing much delight¬ 
ful reminiscence. 

Dr. William Smith, with Henry Wace, 
D.D., has continued his “ Dictionary of the 
Bible,” by editing a Dictionary of Christian 
Biography, Literature, Sects, and Doctiines 
during the First Eight Centuties, 4 vols. 
(London: John Murray). The work is 
written from a conservative theological and 
critical stand-point. The contributors are 
many and of varying distinction as scholars. 
While the work, therefore, will not be au¬ 
thoritative in every part, it constitutes an ex¬ 
cellent encyclopaedia. 



Stephen’s Dictionary of National Bio¬ 
graphy, in Volume XIII. reaches Damer. 

The most important recent historical work 
is the long-delayed completion of Kinglake’s 
Invasion of the Crimea: its Origin, and an 
Account of its Progress down to the Death 
of Lord Raglan, Vols. VII. and VIII. (V. 
and VI. of the American edition, Harper & 
Brothers). Mr. Kinglake has not the judi¬ 
cial impartiality of a great historian—his 
work indeed was designed to defend the 
military reputation of Lord Raglan, with 
whose death it closes. The work has not 
an ideal unity and balance of parts; the 
style is not always in the best taste, yet it is 
everywhere vividly written and has much of 
that brilliancy which made it popular in its 
beginning (1863). 

Another important work is Mr. H. C. 
Lea’s History of the Inquisition of the Middle 
Ages, 3 vols. (Harper & Brothers). It is 
marked by calmness of tone, scholarly tho¬ 
roughness, and philosophical method. The 
principle of persecution for religious dissent 
is carefully traced from its germination to its 
later developments. 

Mr. E. B. Washburne’s Recollections of 
a Minister to France, 1869-1877, 2 vols. 
(Charles Scribner’s Sons), gives the expe¬ 
riences of one who had exceptional oppor¬ 
tunities for observation of men and things at 
an exciting epoch in recent French affairs. 

A Sketch of Universal History, in 3 
vols.: Ancient History by Professor Raw- 
linson, Mediaeval History by Professor 
Stokes, Modern History by Professor Pat¬ 
ton, makes a useful compendium, though its 
limits preclude the grace of style or com¬ 
pleteness obtained in special treatises. 

Prof. J. P. Mahaffy, in Greek Life and 
Thought, from the Age of Alexander to the 
Roman Conquest, supplements his works on 
the literature and social life of the earlier 
periods, and gives in his usual bright style 
an exposition of the characteristics of this 
too little studied Hellenistic period. The 
same versatile writer has brought out a novel 
work in another field, The Principles of the 
Art of Conversation. 

Professor Fisher has published in one vol¬ 
ume a comprehensive History of the Chris¬ 
tian Church (Charles Scribner’s Sons). 

The “Story of the Nations” series (G. 
P. Putnam’s Sons) has added Hungary, by 
Arminius Vambery, and The Saracens, by 
Arthur Gilman. 

J. R. Green’s admirable Short History of 
the English People, the sale of which has 
reached some 129,000 copies, has been re¬ 
vised by the widow of the author on the 
basis of the larger work, aided also by cer¬ 
tain eminent friends. 

Of books of travel the most interesting is 
Sir Henry Layard’s Early Adventures in 
Persia, Susiana, and Babylonia, including 
a residence among the Bakhtiyari and other 
wild tribes before the discovery of Nineveh. 

These explorations were undertaken more 
than forty years ago under great difficulties, 
in a region which continues to be a wonder¬ 
land, even as in the days of Herodotus. 

Mr. J. A. Froude’s The English in the 
JVest Indies ; or the Bow of Ulysses, is in 
a sense the counterpart of his Oceana, his 
experiences in Australia and the East ; it is 
also as pessimistic regarding colonial pros¬ 
pects as the other work was rose-colored. 
It is a rhetorician’s book rather than the 
careful study of an economist. 

Dr. O. W. Holmes’ Our Hundred Days in 
Europe, and Mr. S. S. Cox’s The Isles of the 
Princes ; or the Pleasures of Prinkipo , ex¬ 
periences had while United States Minister 
to Turkey, are pleasant books having mainly 
a personal interest. 

Poetry. —The most considerable recent 
poetical work is Swinburne’s Locrine: a 
Tragedy. His theme is wifely jealousy, 
hate, and revenge, the plot of the Agamem¬ 
non reversed. The baseless myth from which 
the plot is taken, the conquest of Britain by 
Trojan Brutus, has little interest in itself. 
The treatment shows a Greek simplicity of 
development, but the choral odes of Ata- 
lanta are wanting. The rhythm has that 
well-known mellifluous quality, which, though 
it sometimes palls on the reader, is rarely 
matched in modern poetry. The verse is 
decasyllabic, but rhymed, a part in couplets, 
other portions in sonnet sequences and vari¬ 
ous intricate metrical forms. 

Prince Lucifer, by Alfred Austen, is a 
long, ambitious poem in dramatic form, but 
lacking in dramatic action and art. The 
lyric portions are more successful than the 
dialogue. Its apparent thesis is repellant, 
marriage a human convention, necessary, as 
things are, but not so in an ideal society. 

Mr. Lowell has issued, under the title 
Heartsease and Rue, a volume of poems con¬ 
taining most of the pieces which have ap¬ 
peared during the last dozen years, together 
with some earlier poems not before given 
a place in his published collections. 

Other volumes containing much graceful 
verse are, R. L. Stevenson’s Underwoods, 
Edwin Arnold’s Lotus and Jewel, Joaquin 
Miller’s Songs of the Mexican Seas, and 
Poems by the late E. R. Sill. 

Mr. H. F-Randolph’s Fifty Years of 
English Song, 4 vols. (A. D. F. Randolph & 
Co.), is a conveniently classified and accept¬ 
able anthology of the poetry of Victoria’s 
reign (reviewed in New Princeton Review 
for March). 

The second volume of Dean Plumptre’s 
Dante contains the translation of the Para- 
diso and of the Canzoniere, and a number of 
“Studies,” “The Growth and Genesis of 
the Commedia,” “ Estimates of Dante,” 
“Dante as an Observer and Traveller,” 
“ Portraits of Dante.” 

Mr. William Morris has completed his 
translation of the Odyssey of Homer in the 



metre of Sigurd, the first part of which, 
Books I.-XII., was previously noticed. 

Vergil finds a new translator in Sir Charles 
Bowen, Eclogues and VEneid, /.- VI. The 
metre is a novel one, a rhymed catalectic 
hexameter, the last syllable being dropped 
to avoid the feminine rhymes, difficult to 
manage in English and not suited to the 
dignity of serious verse. 

Among works of a more technical nature 
maybe noticed the following: Lang’s Myth, 
Ritual and Religion is in the same line as 
his Custom and Myth, supporting what may 
be roughly called totemism as the basis of 
mythology, against the more generally ac¬ 
cepted poetico-meteorological theory. 

Prof. Max Muller, besides his weightier 
work, The Science of Thought (reviewed 
in the New Princeton Review for March!, 
has gathered together a number of essays in 
Biographies of Words and the Home of the 
Aryas. Professor Muller invests philologi¬ 
cal matters with a charm even for general 
readers. He writes from a conservative 
stand-point, especially in viewing the tend¬ 
ency to fix upon a European habitat for the 
original Aryan stock. 

Doctor Fumivallhas edited in the “ Rolls 
Series ” The Story of England by Robert 
Manning of Brunne, A. D. iyj8, being, 
however, only the first part, never published 
hitherto. The work has a linguistic value 
to students of early English, but not much 
historical value, as it is itself mainly a trans¬ 
lation of Wace. 

An exhaustive Dictiotiary of the Welsh 
Language is being prepared by Rev. D. S. 
Evans. Part I. takes in letter A only. 

Mr. E. S. Roberts has produced a scho¬ 
larly work in An Introduction to Greek Epi¬ 
graphy: Part I, the archaic inscriptions and 
the Greek alphabet. 

Professor August Fick has applied his 
theories of the origin and construction of 
the Homeric poems to Hesiod. He essays 
to dissect out a primitive Aeolic core, after¬ 
ward Ionicized, and enlarged by interpo¬ 
lations and accretions. 

The Cambridge University Press is issu¬ 
ing, under the editorship of Dr. H. B. Swete, 
The Old Testament in Greek according to the 
Septuagint. Vnl. I. Genesis—Kings. The 
Vatican MS. (B) is taken, as far as com¬ 
plete, as presumably containing the oldest 
text; but the work is meant not to furnish 
but to prepare the way for a final critical 
text, which is a thing much desired from 
the increased importance now attached to 
the Septuagint. 

Bagster also publishes a new Handy Con¬ 
cordance of the Septuagint, in which accuracy 
is especially sought. 

Miscellaneous. — Mr. Henry Irving, 
with Mr. F. A. Marshall, is editing The 
Henry Irving Shakspere (Blackie), to be in 
eight small quarto volumes, with many 
illustrations by Mr. Gordon Browne. Two 

volumes are already issued. Unique features 
are Mr. Irving’s introductory essay on Shake¬ 
speare as a practical playwright, the stage 
history of each play prefixed to it, and the 
marginal indications of omissions in each 
play to furnish a proper acting edition. 

Chapman & Hail, the original publishers of 
Pickwick fifty years ago, have brought out 
a limited memorial “Victoria” edition, de¬ 
signed to be in every way complete. The 
original drawings are reproduced in facsimile, 
with a number which were not used. 

The London Times celebrated its hun¬ 
dredth birthday, January i. It had existed 
under another name from 1785. 

A library of Roman Catholic books pub¬ 
lished in England during Victoria’s reign 
was sent as a Jubilee offering to the Pope. 
It numbers some fifteen hundred volumes, 
unimportant works being excluded. Among 
the authors are Cardinals Manning and 
Newman in theology, Mr. Coventry Patmore 
and Mr. Aubrey de Vere in poetry, Doctor 
Mivart in science. 

The centenary of Byron’s birth, January 
22, passed without any significant celebration 
in England or America. 

Prof. Max Muller has been appointed to 
the new lectureship on natural theology in 
Glasgow University on the Gifford foundation. 

Alfred Domett, immortalized as Waring in 
Mr. Browning’s poem of that name, died last 
November at seventy-six. Among Domett’s 
own poems his Christmas hymn with the re¬ 
frain, “In the silent midnight,” is widely 
known and prized. 


Astronomy.— Mr. Norman Lockyer com¬ 
municated to the Royal Society, on October 
4, a note containing the results of his obser¬ 
vations on the SPECTRA OF METEORITES. An 
abstract of this paper appears in Nature, No¬ 
vember 17 and 24, 1887. The investigation 
proceeded upon a study of the spectra of 
many carbon compounds, and of the various 
metals at a comparatively low temperature, 
with special reference to the changes which 
occur in them with changes of temperature. 
The sources of heat used were the Bunsen 
burner, and the oxy coal-gas flame. In every 
case the spectrum of the body under exami¬ 
nation was more complex in the oxy-coal- 
gas flame than in the cooler Bunsen flame, 
though in no case was the number of lines 
or bands seen large. The spectrum of the 
glow of sodium and magnesium obtained by 
the passage of an electrical discharge through 
a vacuum tube was also examined. As the 
metals were heated the spectrum of the gas 
in the tube showed two of the prominent 
hydrogen lines. When the tube was heated 
still further, these lines became dim and the 
structural spectrum of hydrogen appeared. 
In the case of magnesium another character¬ 
istic line was observed. 


4 T 3 

The results of these researches were com¬ 
pared with those of similar ones made upon 
fragments of meteorites. In the oxy-hydro- 
gen flame these specimens gave only about a 
dozen lines of magnesium, iron, sodium, 
lithium, and potassium, with indications also 
of manganese. In the spark spectrum given 
by the induction coil, about twenty lines 
were observed of magnesium, sodium, iron, 
strontium, calcium, barium, chromium, zinc, 
bismuth, and nickel. When the current was 
passed over a piece of iron meteorite in the 
vacuum tube, and heat was applied, the first 
spectrum observed was that of hydrogen ; 
on further heating, the line which appeared 
when magnesium was similarly treated be¬ 
came evident. Indications of carbon were 
also present. The conclusion is reached 
that only the lowest temperature lines of the 
metals are seen in meteorites under the vari¬ 
ous conditions. By a comparison of these 
results with the recorded spectra of luminous 
meteors, Mr. Lockyer is led to believe that 
the temperature of the luminous meteors is 
higher than that of the Bunsen flame. 

From the fact that, when the meteoric 
fragment was strongly heated in the vacuum 
tube while the current was passing, the 
whole tube gave the spectrum of carbon, 
Mr. Lockyer argues that as this spectrum is 
similar to that given out by a comet through¬ 
out a large extent of the immense space filled 
by it, the illumination of the comet is prob¬ 
ably electrical, and connected with the elec¬ 
tric repulsion from the sun of the vapors 
composing it. The spectra of certain stars, 
especially of some “Novas” or temporary 
stars, have shown the bright flutings of car¬ 
bon and absorption flutings of magnesium 
and zinc. Mr. Lockyer concludes that the 
carbon spectrum is due to electrical action on 
the vapors expelled from the meteorites as 
in the case of comets, and that the absorption 
spectra are produced by the vapor surround¬ 
ing the meteorites, which have been made in¬ 
tensely hot by collision. These stars then, in 
his view, are“ clouds of incandescent stones.” 

The spectrum of a nebula is very similar 
to that obtained from a meteorite glowing 
gently in an atmosphere given off by itself. 
As, further, a similar spectrum is given by 
comets at a distance from the sun, it is 
argued that the nebula are composed of 
meteoric swarms similar to those which are 
supposed to form comets. 

The general conclusions reached by Mr. 
Lockyer are stated by him,in part,as follows: 

All self-luminous bodies in the celestial 
spaces are composed of meteorites, or masses 
of meteoric vapor brought about by conden¬ 
sation of meteor swarms due to gravity. 

The spectra of all these bodies depend 
upon the heat of the meteorites, produced 
by collisions, and the average space between 
the meteorites in the swarm, or, in the case 
of consolidated swarms, upon the time which 
has elapsed since complete vaporization. 

The temperature of the vapors in nebulae, 
some stars, and in comets away from perihe¬ 
lion, is about that of the Bunsen flame. 

The brilliancy of these aggregations at 
each (increasing) temperature, depends on 
the number of meteorites in the swarm, that 
is, the difference depends on the quantity, 
not the intensity, of the light. The main 
factor in the various spectra produced is the 
ratio of the interspaces between the mete¬ 
orites to their incandescent surface. When 
the interspace is very great, the tenuity of 
the gases given off by collisions will be so 
great that no luminous spectrum will be pro¬ 
duced. When the interspace is less, the 
tenuity of the gases will be reduced, and the 
vapors occupying the interspaces will give us 
bright lines or flutings. When the inter¬ 
space is relatively small, and the tempera¬ 
ture of the individual meteorites, therefore, 
higher, the preponderance of the bright 
lines or flutings in the spectrum of the in¬ 
terspaces will diminish, and the incandes¬ 
cent vapor surrounding each meteorite will 
indicate its presence by absorbing the con¬ 
tinuous-spectrum-giving light of the meteor¬ 
ites themselves. 

New stars are produced by the clash of 
meteor swarms, and variable stars are un¬ 
condensed meteor swarms, or stars in which 
a central more or less condensed mass exists. 

Professor Trowbridge and Mr. Hutchins 
laid before the American Academy of Arts 
and Sciences a paper discussing the ex¬ 
To test the view of Dr. Henry Draper, who 
had thought that there were bright lines in 
the spectrum corresponding to the spectrum 
of oxygen, they made a large number of 
photographs of the solar spectrum, upon 
which they could not fix with any certainty 
upon any line that was brighter than its 
neighbors. They were also able to decide 
that the lines in the sun’s spectrum sup¬ 
posed by Prof. J. C. Draper to be due to 
oxygen are not really coincident with the 
lines in the spectrum of oxygen. In both 
cases the error of the earlier observers was 
due to lack of sufficient instrumental power. 

The authors hold the view that “ the 
fluted spectrum of carbon is an example of 
the reversal of the lines of a vapor in its own 
vapor.” They find remarkable coincidences 
between the spaces separating the fine bright 
lines of the flutings and dark lines in "the 
solar spectrum. They therefore conclude 
the existence of carbon in the sun, and be¬ 
lieve that at the part of the sun’s atmos¬ 
phere where the reversal just described is oc¬ 
casioned, the temperature is about that of 
the electric arc. 

M. Cruls communicated to the French 
Academy, on January 16, the results of the 
observations on the last transit of Venus 
made by the Brazilian expeditions. The 
principal telescope used by each of the three 
expeditions had an aperture of 6.3 inches, 



and other smaller telescopes were also em¬ 
ployed. The resulting solar parallax from 
the internal contacts is 8 "808. This is 
smaller than the results obtained by the 
British expeditions as given in the SCIENCE 
Record, November, 1887, and agrees with the 
value of the parallax deduced from Michel- 
son’s measurements of the velocity of light. 

Subsequent observations have confirmed 
the statement made in the Science Record, 
November, 1887, that the comet discovered 
by Mr. Brooks on August 24 is Olbers’ 
comet of 1815. 

At the Vienna Observatory, Palisa discov¬ 
ered, on September 21,minor planet No. 269. 

At Clinton, N. Y., Professor Peters dis¬ 
covered, on October 13, minor planet No. 270. 

At Berlin, Doctor Knorre discovered, on 
October 13 minor planet No. 271. 

At Nice, M. Charlois discovered, on Feb¬ 
ruary 4, minor planet No. 272. 

Physics. —At the meeting of the British 
Association of 1887, Professor Ewing pre¬ 
sented the results of his experiments on the 
limit of magnetization of iron. By 
using a thin neck of iron between two large 
pole-pieces, values of magnetic induction 
were obtained higher than any previously 
known. Determinations of the strength of 
the magnetic field near the neck yielded re¬ 
sults, however, which indicate a final limit 
of intensity of magnetization. Professor Ew¬ 
ing also reported on the change in mag¬ 
netic PERMEABILITY of an iron bar when it 
is cut in two and the halves placed in con¬ 
tact. After the bar was cut the permeability 
fell off very considerably, and was not in¬ 
creased by forming the surfaces of separa¬ 
tion truly plane ; when, however, compres¬ 
sion was applied and the plane surfaces 
forced together, the permeability rose to that 
of the solid bar. Professor Ewing ascribes 
these facts to the effect of a layer of air be¬ 
tween the two surfaces. 

Professor Nichols and Mr. Franklin pub¬ 
lished, in the American Journal of Science and 
Arts , December, 1887, an account of their 
experiments showing a change in the chemi¬ 
cal relations of iron when brought into 
a magnetic field. Powdered iron was im¬ 
mersed in strong nitric acid, in which it re¬ 
mained perfectly passive until the tempera¬ 
ture was raised to 89°C, when a violent chem¬ 
ical action began. When the experiment 
was repeated in a powerful magnetic field, 
the chemical action began at once, and be¬ 
came violent at 5I°C. The temperature at 
which the passive condition of the iron is 
lost seems to be lowered by the presence of 
the magnetic field. The experiment was 
then tried of immersing two iron bars paral¬ 
lel to the lines of force in any liquid that 
can attack iron, and so arranging the sys¬ 
tem that f he ends of one bar and the middle 
of the other were in contact with the liquid. 
In this case the bar with its ends in contact 
became positive to the other, so that when 

the bars were joined by wires a permanent 
current flowed through the wires from the 
bar with its middle part in contact with the 
liquid to the other. The authors believe 
that local action will be set up in the pow¬ 
dered iron between the magnetic poles in¬ 
duced in its granules and their intermediate 
parts, and that this fact explains the loss of 
passivity in the magnetic field. 

In connection with this should be men¬ 
tioned an experiment reported to the British 
Association by Professor Rowland. Fol¬ 
lowing up an observation of Professor Rem- 
sen, he showed that if, in a magnetic field, 
two pieces of iron, so covered that one ex¬ 
posed a pointed end and the other a plane 
surface, were immersed in a liquid that 
would act on iron, the pointed end was pro¬ 
tected from the action of the liquid, and a 
current flowed from it through a wire con¬ 
necting it with the other piece of iron. 

H. Ebert published, in the Annalen der 
Physik und Chemie, No. 11, 1887, an inves¬ 
tigation undertaken to determine whether 
the wave-length of light, and therefore 
its velocity of propagation, is dependent on 
its intensity. He used the method of inter¬ 
ferences in thick plates, and obtained inter¬ 
ference bands with a difference in path of 
the interfering rays amounting in some 
cases to fifty thousand wave-lengths. The 
changes in intensity were brought about by 
the use of absorbing media. His results 
show a constancy in the velocity of light 
with variable intensity almost to a millionth 
of its whole amount. Indeed, no indications 
of any change of velocity were observed. 

In the Annalen der Physik und Chemie, 
No. 8 b., 1887, H. Hertz called attention to 
the fact that the readiness with which an 
electric spark will pass between two elec¬ 
trodes, is much increased when the ultra¬ 
violet rays of the spectrum are allowed to 
fall upon the region in which the discharge 
occurs. His investigations have been ex¬ 
tended by Prof. E. Wiedemann and H. 
Ebert, and the results of their researches ap¬ 
peared in the same journal, No. 2, 1888. 

In continuation of his work mentioned in 
the Science Record, May, 1887, F. Him- 
stedt presents, in the Annalen der Physik und 
Chemie , No. 1, 1888, a new determination 
of the quantity v., the ratio between the 
electrostatic and the electromagnetic units. 
The method was one given by Maxwell. 
The value obtained was 30.081 x io’, which 
is in close agreement with the result of his 
earlier work. 

Chemistry. —A full account has been 
published, in the Annales de Chimie et de 
Physique , December, 1887, of the successful 
isolation of the element fluorine, by 
M. Henri Moissan. His first essays were 
made upon the fluorides of phosphorus and 
arsenic, and attempts were made to break 
them up by passing induction sparks through 
them, with the result that, while some indica- 



tions were obtained of tbe presence of free 
fluorine, yet it could not be kept from re¬ 
combination. Another experiment, in which 
use was made of a property of platinum of 
absorbing phosphorus from the fluoride, was 
somewhat more successful, in that free fluor¬ 
ine in an excess of trifluoride of phosphorus 
was obtained. M. Moissan then turned his 
attention to the electrolysis of the liquid flu¬ 
oride of arsenic, and met with partial success, 
in that indications of free fluorine were again 
observed. The high specific resistance of 
the electrolyte, however, and the formation 
of a non-conducting coat of arsenic on the 
negative pole prevented full success. At 
last pure anhydrous hydrofluoric acid, itself 
a non-conductor, was rendered conducting 
by dissolving in it a few crystals of the 
double fluoride of hydrogen and potassium ; 
the eudiometer was immersed in a freezing 
mixture to prevent the evolution of vapor of 
hydrofluoric acid ; and on the passage of the 
current an active evolution of hydrogen be¬ 
gan at the negative electrode and free fluor¬ 
ine was liberated at the positive electrode. 
Great difficulty was found in constructing 
the eudiometer so that the fluorine could be 
obtained for experiment, on account of its 
intense activity in attacking any material 
used for stoppers in the tube. At last stop¬ 
pers of fluorspar were employed with suc¬ 
cess. The activity of fluorine in entering 
into combination is very great. Sulphur 
and selenium placed in it at once melted 
and inflamed. Phosphorus, arsenic, and 
antimony took fire. Crystalline silicon also 
became incandescent and burnt with great 
brilliancy. When hydrogen and fluorine are 
brought in contact, even in the dark, they 
combine with a violent explosion. The 
metals, and also all organic substances, are 
attacked by the free fluorine. 

Three determinations of the atomic 
weight of oxygen have been lately made, 
with a view to again test Prout’s law and to 
put the experimental knowledge of this im¬ 
portant constant on a more secure foundation. 
Doctor Keiser published an account of his 
method in the Bcrichte der Deutscken Cke- 
mischen Gesellschaft. He used the method 
in which hydrogen is made to combine with 
the oxygen of copper oxide to form water. 
Besides weighing the oxygen from the loss of 
weight of the copper oxide, and weighing the 
water, Doctor Keiser further checked his re¬ 
sults by weighing the hydrogen employed. 
To do this he used the property possessed by 
palladium of absorbing large quantities of 
hydrogen, which may be slowly driven off by 
heating. The amount of hydrogen thus ex¬ 
pelled was determined by weighing the pal¬ 
ladium before and after heating. Doctor 
Keiser’s result is that the atomic weight of 
oxygen is probably near 15.87.—In the Pro¬ 
ceedings of the American Academy of Arts 
and Sciences , Vol. XXIII., Professor Cooke 
and Mr. Richards present their work on the 

same subject. Their method was to weigh 
the hydrogen used and the water obtained. 
From a series of very concordant results they 
obtain the value 15.953 for the atomic weight 
desired.—Lord Rayleigh presented to the 
Royal Society, on February 9, the results 
obtained by him, by direct weighings after 
Regnault’s method, of the relative densities 
of oxygen and hydrogen. He finds that 
previous determinations have been in error 
in not taking into account the difference in 
volume of the glass globes employed when 
full and empty. The correction which he 
introduces for this difference reduces the 
value of the atomic weight of oxygen de¬ 
duced from his observations. The value for 
this constant obtained is 15.912. 

Doctors Fischer and Tafel have issued two 
communications in the Berichte derDeutschen 
Chemischen Gesellschaft, giving accounts of 
their artificial preparation of glucose. 
They at first used acrolein as a starting 
point, converted it into its dibromide, and 
then removed the bromine by treatment with 
baryta water, leaving the glucose in solution. 
Afterward they reduced glycerine directly to 
its aldehyde, and the solution thus formed 
gradually polymerized into glucose. The 
glucose, when isolated, is a sirupy substance, 
in every respect like the sugars. It has, 
however, the peculiar property that it does 
not rotate the plane of polarization of a po¬ 
larized beam passed through it. 

Prof. Lothar Meyer published, in the 
same journal, a paper containing the results 
of his investigation of the action of certain 
salts in solution in serving, as he terms it, as 
“oxygen carriers.” His experiments 
consisted in passing through solutions of 
different salts simultaneous currents of oxy¬ 
gen and sulphur dioxide, expelling the sul¬ 
phur dioxide remaining in the solution at the 
end of the experiment, and determining the 
sulphuric acid formed. He thus found that 
certain salts in solution greatly facilitate the 
union of the oxygen with the sulphur dioxide. 
In some cases the amount of sulphuric acid 
thus synthesized was four or five times that 
originally contained in the salt. Professor 
Meyer considers these results to be due to al¬ 
ternate oxidations and reductions. 

Gerhard Kriiss reports the discovery, in 
the mineral euxenite, of small quantities of 
the new element germanium. The supply 
of the original mineral argyrodite, in which 
germanium was first discovered by Winkler, 
is exhausted, and it is interesting to recog¬ 
nize the existence of another source of sup¬ 
ply for this rare element. 

There has lately appeared a very impor¬ 
tant book by Professor Van’t Hoff, discuss¬ 
ing and explaining the system of tri¬ 
dimensional formulas which were intro¬ 
duced into organic chemistry by himself 
and Le Bel. Van’t Hoff proceeds on the 
view that the four affinities of carbon are ar¬ 
ranged about the carbon atom on the four 



angles of a tetrahedron. In any molecule 
in which these affinities are satisfied by dif¬ 
ferent monad atoms or groups, it is always 
possible to arrange these monad atoms in 
two ways so as to produce two different 
tetrahedra, one of which is the image of 
the other. The carbon atom thus viewed 
is termed asymmetric. Such compounds, 
when formed, will be identical in chemical 
constitution, and will differ only in certain 
physical properties. They all exhibit the 
optical property of rotating the plane of 
polarization, those possessing one arrange¬ 
ment of the atoms rotating the plan: to the 
right and the others rotating it to the left. 
The two arrangements crystallize in forms 
which are the images of each other, and 
the crystals exhibit opposite pyro-electrici¬ 
ties. When such a carbon compound is ar¬ 
tificially prepared it is always optically 
inactive, the explanation being that on 
the average equal numbers of molecules 
of opposite optical properties are formed. 
The separation of the molecules of opposite 
character has in many cases been effected. 
The subject has received great extension in 
a recent memoir of Professor Wislicenus, 
presented to the Royal Academy of Saxony. 

The Natural Sciences. —At the Vienna 
Meeting of the International Congress of 
Hygiene an important discussion was held 
on the value of Pasteur's method of in¬ 
oculation as a preventative against hydro¬ 
phobia. Doctor Chamberland, representing 
Doctor Pasteur, stated that their observa¬ 
tions had demonstrated that those of their 
patients who had died of rabies were not in¬ 
fected with it by the inoculation, thus an¬ 
swering a charge that has often been made 
against Pasteur’s method ; and stated that 
the percentage of mortality among their pa¬ 
tients was much lower than that commonly 
accepted as the mortality among bitten per¬ 
sons who were not treated by the method. 
Several other physicians who had used the 
method gave testimony to the great success 
with which they had met. Cases were cited 
where, of several people bitten by the same 
rabid dog, those who were inoculated re¬ 
mained healthy, while those not inoculated 
died of hydrophobia. While some opposi¬ 
tion to a full acceptance of Pasteur’s views 
and method was made, yet the current of 
opinion was all in their favor. 

Professor Trowbridge read a paper before 
the National Academy of Sciences, giving 
an account of a discovery made by his son, 
of a peculiar formation of the wings of cer¬ 
tain BIRDS, especially the birds of prey. 
These birds, it is found, have the power to 
lock securely the parts of the wing which 
hold the long feathers, so that the wing may 
be kept spread without any muscular action. 
This fact is applied to explain the behavior 
of birds while soaring. 

Mr. John Murray published, in the Scot¬ 
tish Geographical Magazine , January, 1888, 

his investigation of the various elevations of 
the earth’s surface. He estimates the 
mean height of the land as 2,252 feet, and the 
mean depth of the ocean as 14,640 feet; 
Between sea level and a height of 6,000 feet 
is found 84 per cent, of the land, while only 
42 per cent, of the ocean bed is at a less 
depth than 6,000 feet. The land area is 
55,000,000 square miles, and the ocean area 
137,000,000 square miles. The volume of 
land above sea level is 23,450,000 cubic 
miles, and the volume of the ocean is 323,- 
800.000 cubic miles. There are 3.7 cubic 
miles of matter carried down to the sea each 
year by rivers from the land. The total 
volume of the earth is estimated at 259,850,- 
1x7,778 cubic miles. 

On February 9, 1888, there was presented to 
the Royal Society a paper by Mr. E. B. Poul- 
ton announcing the discovery of TRUE TEETH 
adult animal exhibits no teeth, and performs 
mastication by means of horny plates in the 
jaws. In the young specimens examined 
true teeth were found developing under these 
horny plates. There are three teeth on each 
side in the upper jaw, and two in the lower. 
The anterior tooth of the upper jaw was the 
one most completely developed. The man¬ 
ner of development seems to be the same as 
that in the higher mammals. 

Professor Milne presented to the Royal 
Meteorological Society, on December 21, 
the results of his comparison of the Tokio 
records of EARTH TREMORS and of the 
weather records for Japan. He finds re¬ 
markable coincidences of these tremors with 
high winds, and believes that nearly 80 per 
cent, of the tremors can be accounted for on 
the hypothesis that they are the effects of 

Miscellaneous. —The Municipal Coun¬ 
cil of Paris has founded a new professor¬ 
ship connected with the Sorbonne, espe¬ 
cially intended to allow of the advocacy and 
teaching of Darwinism. The appointment 
is given to M. Giard, for a long time pro¬ 
fessor of Zoology at Lille, and now at Paris. 

The first number of the Journal of Mor¬ 
phology has appeared. It is edited by Mr. 
Whitman, and published by Ginn & Co. at 

The first numbers of the American Journal 
of Psychology, edited by Prof. G. Stanley 
Hall, and published by N. Murray at Balti¬ 
more, have been issued. 

A new journal, the American Geologist, 
has been founded. 

Two new periodicals dealing with Anthro¬ 
pology have just appeared : The Internation¬ 
ales Archiv fiir Ethnographic , edited by 
Doctor Schmeltz of the Museum of Ethno¬ 
graphy at Leyden ; and The American An¬ 
thropologist, published by the Anthropologi¬ 
cal Society of Washington. 

Among the distinguished men of science 
who have recently died, may be mentioned 


41 7 

Dr. Gustav Kirchhoff of Berlin, the discov¬ 
erer, with Bunsen, of spectrum analysis, and 
the author of important papers in theoreti¬ 
cal physics ; Prof. Balfour Stewart of Man¬ 
chester, well known for his researches in 
radiance; and Dr. Asa Gray of Cam¬ 
bridge, Massachusetts, the eminent Ameri¬ 
can botanist. 


The work of the Egyptian Explora¬ 
tion Fund is being continued with unabat¬ 
ed interest, M. Naville having left England 
to complete the excavations at Boubastis. 
Mr. Petrie, conducting private excavations 
at Biahamu in the Fayoum for the excep¬ 
tional pyramids which Herodotus describes 
as crowned with statues, found fragments of 
two seated colossi which, with their bases 
and pedestals, would have reached 60 feet in 
height. Each pedestal was surrounded by an 
open court with sloping walls nearly as high 
as the pedestal. From a distance the colossi 
would appear as if seated on the top of pyra¬ 
mids. Mr. Petrie will now turn his atten¬ 
tion to the discovery of the Labyrinth. In 
recognition of the large subscription to the 
fund sent from America, the Museum of 
Fine Arts, Boston, has been presented with 
an heroic seated statue of Rameses II., a 
black granite sphinx of the Hyksos period, 
a Xllth Dynasty statue from Boubastis, and 
a selection of Greek vases from Naukratis. 
The casts made by Mr. Petrie, of 150 por¬ 
traits of foreign races represented on Egyp¬ 
tian monuments have been photographed. 
The photographs may be had of Mr. Brown¬ 
ing Hogg, Bromley, Kent, England. 

In India a new investigation has been 
made by Mr. Rea of the prehistoric antiqui¬ 
ties of Perianattam, revealing four classes of 
remains : (1) Stone circles with dolmens in 
the centre, (2) circles without dolmens, (3) 
dolmens without circles, and (4) pottery sar¬ 
cophagi without stone enclosures. The dol¬ 
mens excavated by Dr. M. W. Taylor at 
Wynaad show a remarkable resemblance to 
the British examples, and contained terra¬ 
cotta idols analogous to those found at Troy 
and Mykense.—The Palestine Explora¬ 
tion Fund furnishes us with a greatly im¬ 
proved map of the Golan district and records 
the discovery of the walls of Herod’s Tibe¬ 
rias, of Jewish and Christian tombs in Gali¬ 
lee, and of a rock-cut tomb to the east of 
Bethlehem.—At Magnesia in Asia Minor 
have been recovered eleven slabs of the fine 
frieze of the temple of Artemis, large por¬ 
tions of which are already in the Louvre. 
The frieze represents the combats of Greeks 
and Amazons. To the east of Magnesia, 
near the Niobe, have been found the ruins 
of a temple and a number of early sculp¬ 
tures, amongst which the most noteworthy 
are a statue of Aphrodite and one of Kybele. 
New excavations in Cyprus have been un- 

dertaken by the Society for the Promotion 
of Hellenic Studies, for which purpose there 
has been organized a Cyprus Exploration 
Fund. Mr. Ernest A. Gardner is to have 
the general superintendence of the excava¬ 
tions; zoology, and natural science in gene¬ 
ral, is consigned to Doctor Guillemard, and 
architecture to R. Elsey Smith. In Febru¬ 
ary Mr. Gardner began digging on the site 
of an old Phoenician fortress at Leondari, 
near Nikosia. 

In Greece the excavations on the Acropo¬ 
lis at Athens continue to reveal important in¬ 
formation. The exact site of the circular Ionic 
temple of Rome and Augustus has been deter¬ 
mined at twenty-five metres to the east of 
the Parthenon in a line with its entrance. 
Beneath its foundations have been recovered 
additional fragments of the archaic pedimen- 
tal composition (the earliest known), of por¬ 
ous stone in low relief, representing the con¬ 
tests of Herakles with the Hydra and with a 
Triton. Here also has been found a porous 
stone head of an old man, carefully worked 
and painted, the oldest known Attic sculp¬ 
ture in the round. A Pelasgic entrance to 
the citadel has been discovered to the east 
of the Erechtheion, and in the same quarter 
a marble head bearing a striking resem¬ 
blance to the head of the Apollo on the west 
pediment of the temple of Zeus at Olympia; 
a male bearded bronze head of archaic style, 
and inscriptions bearing the names of two 
famous artists, Archermos of Chios and 
Onatas of riEgina. Owing to the large num¬ 
ber of recent discoveries, it has become 
necessary to build a second museum on the 
Acropolis. Outside of the Acropolis, exca¬ 
vations have begun for clearing the thea¬ 
tre of Herod, the Asklepieion, and the 
theatre of Dionysos. The excavation of 
the temple of Asklepios at Epidauros, un¬ 
der Cawadias, and the excavation of the 
very interesting theatre at Oropos, under 
Lionardos, have been resumed. The French 
excavations at Mantineia have resulted in 
freeing the plan of the theatre, determining 
the site of the Agora and of a temple of 
Hera, in the recovery of Doric capitals of 
different periods, and of some interesting 
sculptures. Of special importance are three 
slabs representing a contest of Apollo and 
Marsyas in the presence of the Muses, 
thought to be the pedestal of the Praxitelean 
group of Leto and her children mentioned 
by Pausanias. A work by Praxiteles himself is 
recognized by Benndorf and Reinach in the 
marble head found at Eleusis in 1885, repre¬ 
senting Eubouleus, known to have been ho¬ 
nored at Eleusis as a god or hero. The Ger¬ 
man excavations at Thespiae, now in progress 
under Dorpfeld, have revealed the walls of 
the sanctuary of the Cabeiri, some architec¬ 
tural fragments, and a large number of ani¬ 
mal votive offerings in terracotta, bronze, and 
lead of primitive workmanship. At Mykense, 
in the Acropolis, a series of walls, recalling 



by their arrangement and decoration the 
palace at Tiryns, have been found. Tiryns 
has been revisited by Mr. Penrose, who now 
withdraws his objections to the antiquity of 
the palace remains and adopts the view ad¬ 
vocated by Schliemann and Dorpfeld. Im¬ 
portant for the history of the pre-Mykenae 
period have been the discoveries of rude 
sculptures and gold and bronze objects on 
the island of Crete. An important inscrip¬ 
tion found at Ledda, the ancient Lebena, 
records the wonderful cures effected at the 
temple of Asklepios. Doctor Schliemann’s 
excavations at Kerigo, the ancient Kythera, 
resulted only in the recovery of a portion of 
the wall of what was probably the Phoeni¬ 
cian temple of Aphrodite. The American 
excavations at Sikyon have been renewed, 
and resulted in the recovery of a figure of the 
feminine type of Apollo, and of a female 
head. Four necropoleis found on the slope 
of the hill-side promise interesting results. 

In Italy the spade continues to unearth 
treasures from the ancient world. To the 
east of the Capitoline hill, in Rome, have 
been found parts of a very early wall; near 
the Via Genova, the house of vEmilia Pau¬ 
lina Asiatica ; in the Via Merulana, a fine 
statue of Fortuna, nearly perfect in preser¬ 
vation ; in the Villa Ludovisi, a fine Augus¬ 
tan relief of a woman playing the double 
flute; near the Porta Maggiore, an early 
Christian sarcophagus with the very rare re¬ 
presentation of the Betrayal by Judas ; and, 
at the Church of San’ Agnese, an important 
sarcophagus of the fifth century on which is 
figured the bearded Christ. The excava¬ 
tions on the banks of the Tiber have brought 
to light numerous inscriptions. Two of 
these are noted by Lanciani as of special 
importance to the topography of ancient 
Rome. One reveals the name of Ripa 
Veientiana as designating the right bank of 
the Tiber during the reign of Vespasian ; 
the other mentions the Bridge of Agrippa, 
which Lanciani identifies with the present 
Ponte Sisto. In Pompeii the finest fountain 
mosaic ever found has been discovered. It 
represents Venus issuing from a sea-shell, 
holding a cupid by the hand. Beneath are 
a number of boys with dolphins ; on the 
shore four female figures in amazement. In 
another house was discovered a whole table 
service of silver objects, including jugs, 
drinking cups, egg cups, and fragments of 
spoons. Three libelli or family documents 
give the names of Decidia Margaris and of 
Popptea Note. From the neighborhood of 
Perugia have been recovered a number of in¬ 
teresting objects, among which special men¬ 
tion may be made of two new examples of the 
kottabos, each of which is provided with its 
statuette. These throw new light upon the 
old Greek soldiers’ game. From another 
tomb comes the entire apparatus of an in¬ 
veterate gambler. This consisted of 16 
tessera; in bone, 33 marbles elliptic in shape, 

816 glass hemispheres of three colors—yellow, 
blue, and white—and 50 glass spheres of 
different colors.—In France important ac¬ 
quisitions are reported by the Louvre, Paris, 
especially in the departments of Egyptian, 
Greek, and Roman, Medioeval and Renais¬ 
sance sculpture. The Musee des Gobelins 
has acquired a fine series of ancient Coptic 
textiles, discovered in the Fayoum in 1884. 
The churches at Courcone, Bonpere, of S. 
Leger at Saint Maixent, at Parthenay-le- 
Vieux, and the early Norman church at 
Breteuil are being restored. The Chateau of 
Dijon is to lose one of its towers. The Gothic 
church of Hermes, with its fine Romanesque 
bell tower, is being demolished ; the famous 
Hotel at Sens, one of the most interesting 
specimens of medkeval civil architecture jn 
France, is to be sold, and its destruction is 
possible. When will this vandalism cease ? 
In England the British Museum has received 
from the Egyptian Exploration Fund several 
fine pieces of sculpture and some thirty Greek- 
painted vases from Naukratis, and has added 
numerous specimens to its rich collection of 
Greek and Etruscan bronzes, terracottas, 
and vases. The changes which have been re¬ 
cently made in the arrangement, especially 
of the Greek and Roman antiquities, will 
render them more useful to students. The 
South Kensington Museum has added to its 
collection of tapestries a collection of early 
Coptic textiles from the Fayoum. At the 
Grosvenor Gallery an instructive exhibition 
of a century of British art, 1737-1837, has 
brought to light the merits of many minor 
masters of the end of the last century and 
the beginning of this, who are poorly repre¬ 
sented in the national galleries. Mr. Whis¬ 
tler has been endeavoring to increase the re¬ 
pute of lithography by publishing a hundred 
sets of artistic lithographs, which have highly 
commended themselves to admirers of his 
talent. Mr. Watts has begun a new version 
of his “Love and Death,” to depict the vio¬ 
lent struggle of mortal love with its con¬ 
queror death. A new decorative art, called 
cloisonnee-mosaic, has been invented by Mr. 
Clement Heaton. 

The new year witnesses the establishment 
of several new archaeological reviews : (1) 
Archivio storico dell' Arte, edited by Count 
Gnoli; (2) Revue des Etudes grecques, by 
Theodore Reinach ; (3) Le Moyeti Age, 
published by Picart; (4) Revista archeologica e 
historica, Lisbon ; and (5) A Monthly Review 
of Anthropology, Archeology, History, and 
Literature, by G. Lawrence Gomme, London. 

Necrology. —During the last four months 
death has taken Robert Herdman, one of 
the most accomplished painters of the Royal 
Scottish Academy ; Daniel Ramee, archi¬ 
tect, and author of the well-known Histoire 
de l'Architecture; Louis Gallait, a once very 
popular historical painter ; and Philippe 
Rousseau, a distinguished landscape and 
genre painter. 



Abyssinian troubles.408 

Administration, the. 392 


American life.... . .35-46 

Anarchists, Chicago, execution of.397 

Art and Archaeology— 

Etruscan Temple, The .139-141 

Record .417-418 

Work of the Egyptian Exploration 
Fund, 417 ; gifts to the Museum of 
Fine Arts, Boston, 417 ; antiquities 
of Perianattam, India, 417 ; Pales¬ 
tine Exploration Fund, 417 ; frieze 
from the temple of Artemis, Mag¬ 
nesia, 417; excavations on the 
Acropolis, Athens, 417 ; at Epi- 
dauros, Mantineia, Thespise, and 
Mykenoe, 417 ; Tiryns revisited, 
418 ; American excavations at Sik- 
yon, 418 ; discoveries in Italy, 418; 
restoration of churches in Fiance, 
418 ; destruction of interesting 
buildings, 418; accessions to the 
British Museum, 418 ; exhibition at 
the Grosvenor Gallery, 418 ; series 
of lithographs by Mr. Whistler, 418; 
new archaeological reviews, 418; 

necrology, 418. 

Aryans, origin and characteristics.1-17 



Austria-Hungary. 408 

Authors, American, and British pirates 47-65 


Belgium. 408 

Biological science. 178 

Blair Educational Bill. 394 

Blind, dreams of the.18-34 

Book reviews.145, 272, 387, 410 

Bordeaux, literary men of sixteenth century, 


Boycott in Ireland, the. 403 

Boycott, relations to law. 196 

Brazilian ministry . 409 

Bulgaria. See A Political Frankenstein, 


Bulgarian affairs. 404 

Canada. 404 

Canvass, Presidential. 396 

Central American history, an episode in, 



China ..409 

China, inundation in. 410 

China, treaty with United States. 393 

Cholera in Japan, 1879. 213 

Christianity and the secular spirit. ..175-186 

Church growth, statistics of. 42 

Church, social distinctions in the. 43 

Church, the, a purifying force. 40 

Church union . 43 

City life, attractions to young men. 38 

Civil service. 396 

Clark University. 400 

Climate, effect on race development... 9 

Colombia, revolution in. 409 

Colonies, American, legal relations to 

England. 188 

Color, notions of the blind concerning. 31 
Commercial life of the United States. . 37 

Congress, work of... 393 

Contraction of circulation. 86 

Controversy, provincial character of... 336 

Controversy, religious .. 336 

Conventions, political. 205 

Copyright, international... .46-65, 134-139 

Corea. 410 

Corruption, legislative.... . 83 

Court decisions and trials. 397 

Crimes Act.400-403 

Criminals, execution by electricity.400 

Criticism, value of philosophical. 173 

Deaf, dreams of the. 24 

Debt, payment of the United States... 78 

Diseases, germ.141-143 

Dreams of the blind.18-34 

Economics and ethics.339-346 

Education, importance of early training 20 

Education in Guatemala. 349 

Education, need of political. 40 


Elections. 399 

Elections, English..../... . 403 

Elegies, pastoral.360-370 


England, mixture of races in. 15 

Episcopate, the historic. 45 

Ethical relations of absolute idealism 

and naturalism.164-174 

Ethics and economics.339 _ 346 

Etruscan temple, the.139-141 

European politics and race theories... .1-17 

European war clouds.404-405 

Evolution, the discussion of. 179 

Expenditure of the United States. 80 

Fiction: “ Uncle Mingo’s Speculations,” 
121-133; “ The Marriage of 

Marie Modeste,” 246-271 ; 
“ Fishin’ Jimmy,” 371-384. 




Fisheries Treaty with Great Britain.... 395 

‘‘Fishin’ Jimmy,” a story.371-384 


France, commercial relations. 327 

France's share in the American Revolu¬ 
tion.387-39 0 

Frankenstein, a political.306-322 

French provincial spirit.3 2 3 _ 338 

French Revolution, influence of race on 16 
Fluorine, isolation of. 414 


Germ diseases.141-143 

Glucose, artificial preparation.415 

Government, law, and logic.187-200 

Great Britain.400-404 


Hawaiian Islands. 410 

Hidalgo : the Washington of Mexico, 

88-104, 219-234 
High license bills. 399 


America’s Share in a French 

Celebration .387-390 

M. Doniol’s Histoire de la Partici¬ 
pation de la France a ! Iitablisse- 
ment des £tats-Unis d'Amdrique, 

357 ; neglect of the French side of 
the history of the American Revo¬ 
lution, 387 ; France’s help due to 
the policy of the Count de Ver- 
gennes, 388; influence of Beau¬ 
marchais, 388 ; show of opposition 
to Lafayette’s enterprise, 389 ; poli¬ 
cy of the Prussian king, 390. 

Bulgaria. See A Political Frank¬ 
enstein. .306-322 

Central American History, An 

Episode in . 348-359 

President Barrios’s administration 
in Guatemala, 348 ; educational and 
reformatory measures, 349 ; priestly 
rule of the country under Rafael 
Carera, 349 ; rise of Barrios, 350 ; 
development of the republic under 
his policy, 350; introduction of 
Protestantism, 351 ; personal cha¬ 
racteristics of Barrios, 352 ; plans 
for the consolidation of the Central 
American States, 352 ; proclama¬ 
tion of dictatorship, 353 ; military 
preparations, 354 ; attitude of the 
Central American republics, 354; 
Mexico’s opposition, 355; tele¬ 
graphic communication with other 
nations cut off by San Salvador, 

355 ; effect of Zaldivar’s misrepre¬ 
sentations, 356 ; position of foreign 
ministers, 356 ; equipment of troops 
in San Salvador, 357 ; an incident 
at the National Theatre, Guate¬ 
mala, 358 ; effect on the people, 

358 ; fall of Barrios at the begin¬ 
ning of the campaign, 358 ; his will, 

359 ; result of the movement, 359. 

History— Continued. 

French Provincial Spirit, The, 


See Public Questions, Foreign. 

Hidalgo : the Washington of 

Mexico .88-104, 219-234 

Cortez’s last days, 88 ; injunction on 
his son, 88 ; evils arising from Cor¬ 
tez’s system of land distribution, 

89; oppression of the Indians, 89; 
tyranny of the church, 90 ; Spain’s 
avaricious policy, 91 ; Don Cristo¬ 
bal Hidalgo's wooing, 93 ; birth of 
Hidalgo, 94 ; home surroundings, 

94; restrictions of social position, 

95 ; education for the church, 95 ; 
leadership among his companions, 

96 ; charges of heresy, 97 ; subjec¬ 
tion to discipline, 97 ; growth of 
influence, 97 ; reformatory meas¬ 
ures, 98 ; literary and social in¬ 
terests, 98 ; jealousy of the Span¬ 
ish authorities, 99 ; government in¬ 
terference, 100 ; growth of popular 
feeling, 101 ; signs of the times, 

102 ; outbreak of revolution, 103 ; 
discovery of Hidalgo’s plans, 219; 
precipitation of the conflict, 220; 
the movement given the character 
of a religious crusade, 220; the 
story of the Virgin of Guadaloupe, 

221; inspiration of her banner, 

222 ; growth of the army, 223 ; de¬ 
nunciations by the church, 224; 
discipline of the army, 225 ; lead¬ 
ers in the movement, 226 ; authority 
exerted by Hidalgo, 226 ; liberation 
of slaves and abolishment of Span¬ 
ish monopolies, 227 ; the horrors of 
war, 228 ; Hidalgo’s fatal hesita¬ 
tion before Mexico, 228 ; battles at 
Aculco and the bridge of Calderon, 

229; appeal to the United States, 

230 ; betrayal of Hidalgo and his 
followers, 230; treatment of the 
Mexican prisoners, 231 ; Hidalgo’s 
trial and execution, 232 ; lines writ¬ 
ten in his cell, 232 ; progress of the 
movement, 233 ; honors to Hidalgo, 

234 - 

Japan, Foreign Jurisdiction in, 


See Public Questions, Foreign. 

Japan, The Tariff in. 66-77 

See Public Questions, Foreign. 
Political Frankenstein, A. .306-322 
The figure applied to Bulgaria, 

306 ; plan of separation proposed at 
the Conference of Constantinople, 

306; Turko-Russian War, 306; 
provisions of the Treaty of San 
Stefano, 307 ; division of the coun¬ 
try by the Treaty of Berlin, 307 ; 
obligations assumed, 308 ; organiza¬ 
tion under Russian administration, 

309 ; proposed constitution, 309; 




History — Continued. 

formation of parties, 310 ; develop¬ 
ment of anti-Russian feeling, 310 ; 
over-ruling of Russia’s plans and 
adoption of a liberal constitution 
by the Assembly of Notables, 310; 
election of Prince Alexander to the 
throne, 31 x ; formation of his cabi¬ 
net, 311 ; conflict of the Prince with 
the Liberal party, 312 ; changes in 
the ministry, 312 ; causes of grow¬ 
ing discontent with Russian ma¬ 
nagement, 313 ; intrigues of Russian 
officials, 313 ; distrust aroused by 
the Russian financial ring, 314; 
railroad and banking schemes urged 
on Bulgaria, 315 ; Alexander’s visit 
to St. Petersburg on the death of 
the Emperor, 317 ; coup d'/tat of 
May 9, 1881, demanding dictatorial 
powers, 317; Russia’s approval, 
318; conduct of elections, 318; 
renewal of the demands of Russian 
speculators, 319 ; trouble with 
Russian army officers, 320 ; appeal 
to the Emperor and ministerial 
changes, 320 ; a crisis in Bulgarian 
affairs, 322. 

Idealism, absolute, and naturalism, ethi¬ 

cal relations.164-174 

Imagination, dependence on sight. 30 

Income of the United States. 80 

Indians, the. 399 

Individual dignity. 161 

Industrialism, place in national develop¬ 
ment. 325 

Inoculation, Pasteur’s method. 416 

Interoceanic canal projects.385-387 

Inter-State commerce. 393 

Ireland’s relations to England. 192 

Irish affairs.400-403 

Irish question affected by race. 16 



Japan, financial condition. 73 

Japan, foreign jurisdiction in.207-218 

Japan, the tariff in.66-77 

Japan, treaty relations.66-77, 207-208 

Jews, segregation of, in United States. 37 

Knights of Labor. 398 

Labor organization.343 

Labor troubles. 398 

Language not synonymous with race... 1 

Language, relations to thought. 286 

Law and social questions. 196 

Law, logic, and government.187-200 

Legislative corruption. 83 

Light, wave length of. 414 


Authors, American, and British 
Pirates .47-65 

Humorous defence of English law 
and practices— L in answer to previous 

Literature— Continued. 

article ( see Vol. IV., pp. 200-212)— 
maintaining that American authors 
suffer by their own neglect, 47-54 ; 
reply, summarizing the author’s 
previous paper, citing decisions 
which interpret British law, and 
illustrating its inadequacy by nu¬ 
merous examples, 54-65. 

Balzac. .289-305 

Many-sided _ genius illustrated by 
Rubens’s series of pictures in the 
Louvre, 289 ; Balzac’s fertility and 
energy, 290 ; revision of his works, 

290 ; manifold undertakings, 291 ; 
interest in his own creations, 291 ; 
exhaustive observation and learn¬ 
ing, 292 ; comparison with Rubens, 

292 ; struggles with fame and for¬ 
tune, 293 ; compensations furnished 
by his imagination, 293 ; laborious 
development of his books, 294; 
newspaper relations, 295 ; accusa¬ 
tions of vanity and greed, 295 ; re¬ 
production of the author in his 
works, 296 ; excessive minuteness of 
description, 296 ; vitality of his cha¬ 
racters, 297; comparison with Dick¬ 
ens, 297 ; effect of realistic details, 

297 ; failure in dealing with upper 
classes of society, 298 ; moral weak¬ 
nesses of his characters, 299 ; sub¬ 
jection of art to the coarseness of 
his nature, 300 ; success in repre¬ 
senting the middle and lower 
classes, 301 ; fascination of the 
author’s power, 301 ; Balzac’s re¬ 
lations to the realistic school of 
literature, 302 ; romantic tenden¬ 
cies of his early works, 303 ; deve¬ 
lopment of naturalism, 304. 

Book Reviews .145-163, 272- 

288, 387-391, 410-412 
“ A Memoir of Ralph Waldo Em¬ 
erson,” by J. E. Cabot, 145 ; 

“ Psychology : The Cognitive Pow¬ 
ers,” by James McCosh, 273; 
“Books and Bookmen,” by An¬ 
drew Lang, 275 ; “ Pleasures of a 
Bookworm,” and “ Diversions of a 
Bookworm,” by J. Rogers Rees, 

277 ; “ Who Spoils Our New Eng¬ 
lish Books?” by Henry Stevens, 

278 ; “ The Story of Some Famous 
Books,” by Frederick Saunders, 

279; “The Book Fancier,” by 
Percy Fitzgerald, 279 ; “ Ballads 
of Books,” by Brander Matthews, 

279; “ The Life and Letters of 
Charles Darwin,” ed. by Francis 
Darwin, 280; “Fifty Years of 
English Song,” ed. by Henry F. 
Randolph, 284 ; “ The Science of 
Thought,” by F. Max Muller, 285 ; 

“ Histoire de la. Participation de 
la France 4 l’Etablissement des 



h i t c r a t u r e —Con tin ued. 

Etats-Unis d’Amerique,” by Henry 
Doniol, 387 ; “^Enigma Vitae," by 
John Wilson, 390 ; “ The Gist of 
It," by Thomas E. Barr, 390 ; Re¬ 
cent Books, 410. 

Bordeaux in the Sixteenth Cen¬ 
tury, Men of Letters at, 105-120 
Interest attaching to Montaigne’s 
contemporaries, 105 ; commercial, 
political and religious relations of 
Bordeaux, 105 ; use of Latin 
among scholars, 106 ; revival of 
learning in France at the time, 106; 
intercourse of Bordeaux scholars, 

107 ; Andre Turaqueau, 107 ; 
George Buchanan, 107 ; Andre de 
Gouvea, 108 ; President Largebaton, 

108 ; L’Hopital, 109; visit of 
Charles IX. to Bordeaux (1565),109; 
character of Etienne de la Boetie. 
no; translation of Xenophon’s 
CEconomicits, no ; La Servitude 
Volontaire, in ; occasion of the 
work, in ; doctrines, 112 ; com¬ 
parison with Rousseau’s Contrat So¬ 
cial, 113: La Boetie’s verse, 114; 
Latin poems, 114 ; Pierre de Brach, 

115 ; Du Bartas’s impress on Eng¬ 
lish literature, 116 (note) ; Franjois 
de 1 Foix, 118; De Thou’s account 
of a visit to Bordeaux, 118 ; Copy¬ 
right—What Property Shall 
Authors Have in Their Works ? 


Confusion of publishers’ interests 
and authors’ rights, 134 ; schemes 
of legislation, 135 ; equitable leg¬ 
islation prevented by American pub¬ 
lishers, 135 ; commercial relations 
of authors and publishers, 136 ; 
pay of authors, 136 ; contracts with 
publishers, 137 ; protection of ob¬ 
scure authors, 137 ; logical injus¬ 
tice of proposed publishers’ legisla¬ 
tion, 139. 

Darwin’s Life and Letters 280-284 
Darwin’s school-days, 280 ; univer¬ 
sity career, 280; influences of 
cruise in the Beagle, 281 ; ill-health, 

281 ; reception of the Origin of 
Species ,281; importance of his work, 

282 ; personal traits, 282 ; religious 
views, 283. 


Mr. Cabot’s memoir, 145 ; distinc¬ 
tion between style and form, 146 ; 
illustrative extracts, 146; prose 
style judged by utility, poetical by 
art, 147 ; Emerson’s lack of poeti¬ 
cal imagination, 147 ; extracts illus¬ 
trating faults of form, 149 ; of 
style, 150; use of technical and 
scientific terms, 151 ; appeal to the 
intellect, 151 ; lack of passion, 

152 ; charge of obscurity denied, 


Literature— Continued. 

152; beauties illustrated by extracts, 

153 ; intellectual quality of his 
verse, 154; style of Emerson’s prose 
better than its form, 155 ; Nature, 

155 ; comparison with Marcus 
Aurelius, 156; classification of 
essays, 156; teaching of self-re¬ 
liance, 157 ; The Conduct of Life, 

157 ; practical wisdom, 158 ; lack 
of critical instinct, 159; Represen¬ 
tative Men, 159 ; English Traits, 

160 ; political speeches, 160 ; wit, 

161 ; appreciation of the dignity of 
the individual, 161 ; outlook to the 
future, 162 ; openness and freedom 
of mind, 162; want of religious 
sympathy, 162 ; lack of convincing 
power, 163 ; nobility of character, 



“ Uncle Mingo’s Speculations,” 
121-133 ; “The Marriage of 
Marie Modeste,” 246-271 ; “ Fish- 
in’ Jimmy,” 371-384. 

Literature, Some Aspects of 

Modern .235-245 

Absence of personal element in 
early literature, 235 ; increased 
complexity of form and spirit in 
modern books, 235 ; union of litera¬ 
ture and life, 236; the passion for 
truth, 236 ; scope of artistic rep¬ 
resentation, 237 ; logical develop¬ 
ment of literature, 237 ; books the 
product of common experience, not 
of individual intellect, 238 ; lite¬ 
rary expression proportioned to self- 
knowledge, 239 ; limitations to lite¬ 
rary art at particular periods, 240 ; 
general development of self-know¬ 
ledge characteristic of modem life 
and literature, 241 ; thought and 
expression corresponding powers, 

241 ; revelation of truth through 
the totality of human experience, 

242 ; the impulse of expression, 

242 ; effect of its development on 
literary character and form, 243 ; 
the personal element in modern 
literature, 243 ; its sympathetic at¬ 
titude indicative of a vital change 
of thought, 244 ; the evolution of 
art, 245. 

Pastoral Elegies .360-370 

General characteristics, 360 ; 
Bion’s Lament for Adonis, 360; 
emotional method, 360 ; Moschus’s 
Lament for Bion, 361 ; introduction 
of philosophical meditation, 361 ; 
autobiographic tendency, 362 ; Mil¬ 
ton’s Lycidas, 362 ; new suscepti¬ 
bility to the influences of learning 
and morals, 362 ; hopefulness, 363 ; 
metre, 363 ; Shelley’s Adonais, 

363 ; subordination of the material 




Literature — Continued. 

to the spiritual, 364; consolation, 

365 ; majestic conclusion, 365 ; Ar¬ 
nold’s Thyrsis, 366 ; approach to 
the religious attitude of the Greek 
models, 367 ; sympathy with the 
scepticism of the times, 367; 
Swinburne’s A ve atque Vale, 368 ; 
lowered spiritual tone, 368 ; per¬ 
fection of structure, 368 ; recapitula¬ 
tion, 369. 

Medical practice. See Germ Diseases. 

Memory, dependence on the senses.... 19 

Merced canal. 400 


Mexico, relations with Guatemala.355 

Mexico, revolution under Hidalgo. 

88-104, 219-234 

Moral and industrial conditions, rela¬ 
tion of. 342 

Moral considerations in labor organiza¬ 
tion. 343 

Moral relations of philosophical the¬ 

National industrial development. 325 

Naturalism, ethical relations.164-174 

Natural sciences. 416 

Necrology.400, 404, 412, 416, 418 

New Hebrides. 404 

New South Wales . 410 

Nicaragua interoceanic canal.385-387 

Oxygen, atomic weight.415 

Panama canal.385-387, 408-409 

Party platforms. 201 

Pasteur’s method of inoculation. 4x6 

Pastoral elegies.360-370 

Pension legislation. 394 


Ethical Relations of Abso¬ 
lute Idealism and Natural¬ 
ism .164-186 

Contrasts of idealism and natural¬ 
ism, 164 ; relation of theory to his¬ 
tory and philosophy, 165 ; relative 
importance of reason and feeling 
in intellectual life, 166 ; absolute 
and relative idealism, 166 ; founda¬ 
tion of ethical theory and test of its 
philosophical worth, 167 ; unity of 
existence the characteristic doctrine 
of absolute idealism, 167 ; lack of 
rational law in the ideal concep¬ 
tion of moral action as laid down 
by Green, 168 ; approximation of 
idealism to utilitarianism, 169 ; 
difficulty of escaping a self-regard¬ 
ing disposition inconsistent with 
subjection of personality to uni¬ 
versal law, 169; illustrative posi¬ 
tions taken by Green, 170 ; source 
of moral discrimination, 170; 
grander conception of moral life 
offered by idealism, 171 ; failure of 


Philosophy— Continued. 

idealism in its extreme attempts, 

171 ; failure of naturalism to in¬ 
dicate source of ethical law, 172; 
idealism and naturalism alike in¬ 
sufficient, 172 ; value of compara¬ 
tive criticism, 173 ; summary ; 174. 

Ethics and Economics. 339~347 

Need of frequent restatement of 
theories, 339 ; philosophical recog¬ 
nition of the union of ethics and 
economics, 339 ; impossibility of 
studying industrial powers apart 
from allied forces, 340 ; relations 
illustrated by those between medi¬ 
cine and morals, 341 ; relation of 
moral sentiments and habits to the 
production of wealth, 342 ; to the 
distribution of wealth, 343 ; bear¬ 
ing of moral considerations on the 
organization of labor, 343; the 
character of the laborer the vital 
point of the labor question, 344 ; 
field of political economy, 344; 
function of wealth, 345 ; conditions 
essential to national well - being, 

345 ; development of the produc¬ 
tive power to this end the object 
of political economy, 346 ; demand 
for broader philosophical considera¬ 
tion of ethical and economical re¬ 
lations, 346. 

Psychology, The American 

Journal of .272-275 

The psychology of self-conscious¬ 
ness, 272; physiological psycho¬ 
logy, 272 ; tendency of the Jour¬ 
nal as shown in criticism of Dr. 
McCosh’s Psychology, 273 ; Criti¬ 
cisms answered, 273. 

Thought, The Science of.. 285-288 
Max Muller’s investigations, 286 ; 
relation of language and thought, 

286 ; bearing of language on the 
problems of philosophy, 287 ; the 
author’s theory open to criticism, 

287 ; the question of a priori prin¬ 

ciples, 288. 


Platforms, party. 201 

Poetical anthologies, requirements of... 284 
Political economy. See Ethics and 


Political education, need of. 40 

Political record.392-410 

Politics, European, and race theories . .1-17 

Politics, practical.201-206 

Pope, Jubilee of.408 

Population of the United States.35, 400 

Poverty and Christianity. 185 

Presidential canvass. 396 

Prohibition. 399 

Protestantism in Guatemala. 351 

Provincial spirit, French.323-338 

Psychological study.272-275 

Psychology, American Journal of.. .272-275 



Public Questions, American— 

Administration, The .392-393 

The President’s message on the 
tariff, 392 ; nomination of Secretary 
Lamar to the Supreme Court, 392 ; 
the President’s tour through the 
West and South, 392; friction 
between Secretary Lamar and Com¬ 
missioner Sparks, 392 ; appoint¬ 
ments to office, 392 ; Treasurer’s 
report, 392 ; report of Secretary of 
War, 393 ; the National Guard, 

393 ; recommendations of Secretary 
of the Navy, 393 ; defenceless har¬ 
bors, 393 ; report of the Postmaster- 
General, 393 ; proposed treaty with 
Great Britain to provide for arbitra¬ 
tion, 393 ; President’s journey to 
Florida, 393; treaty with China, 

393 ; Inter-State Commerce Act, 

393 ; investigation of the Pacific 
railroads, 393. 

American Life, Our .35-46 

Composition of American popula¬ 
tion, 35 ; English heritage, 35 ; the 
Scotch-Irish, 36 ; importance of 
assimilation and cooperation of ele¬ 
ments, 36 ; segregation of the 
Jews, 37 ; commercial aims and 
methods, 37 ; the drift cityward, 

38 ; the social world, 39; the 
church a purifying force, 40 ; need 
of political education, 40 ; culpable 
indifference of citizens, 41 ; statis¬ 
tics of church growth, 41 ; social 
distinctions in the church, 43; 
church unity, 43 ; proposed terms 
of reunion, 44 ; the historic episco¬ 
pate, 45 ; place of the church in 
national life, 46. 

Civil Service, The .396 

Revision of the rules, 396 ; effect 
of the changes, 396 ; recommended 
extension of the limit of the classi¬ 
fied service, 396 ; results of civil- 
service examinations, 396; action 
of the New York Civil-Service 
Reform Association, 396; change 
in the New York State Civil-Service 
Commission, 396. 

Congress, Work of. 393-395 

Political composition of the fifteenth 
Congress, 393; President Cleveland’s 
message on the tariff, 393 ; inter¬ 
ests of American labor, 394 ; the 
duty on wool, 394 ; election of Mr. 
Carlisle as speaker, 394 ; salary of 
the Commissioner of Fisheries, 394 ; 
proposed change of presidential 
term, 394; Blair Educational Bill, 

394 ; International Marine Confer¬ 
ence, 394 ; discussion of treaties in 
open session, 394 ; new Dependent 
Pension Bill, 394 ; Union soldiers 
supported in institutions, 394 ; pro¬ 
posed conference with South Ameri- 

Public Questions, Amer.— Cont. 
can States, Mexico, etc., 395 ; 
appropriation for river and harbor 
improvements, 395 ; pension bills, 


Court Decisions and Trials, 


The Chicago anarchists before the 
Supreme Court, 397 ; execution of 
the condemned men, 397 ; trial of 
Jacob Sharp, 397 ; State bonds, 397; 
the driven-well patent, 397 ; arrest 
of the anarchist Most, 397; deci¬ 
sion in favor of the Bell Telephone 

Company, 398. 

Elections .399-400 

Fisheries Treaty, The ... .395-396 

Meeting of the Joint Commission 
(Nov. 21, 1886), 395 ; provisions of 
the treaty, 395 ; delimitation of 
British waters, 395 ; privileges of 
American vessels in Canadian 
ports, 395 ; reception of the treaty. 


Ethics and Economics.339-347 

See Philosophy. 

Indians, The. 399 

The Crow Reservation, 399 ; resig¬ 
nation of Agent Henry E. William¬ 
son, 399 ; partisan appointments 
and removals in the Indian service, 

399 ; education of children, 399. 

Labor Troubles. 398-399 

Recommendations of the General 
Assembly of Knights of Labor, 

398 ; charges against the Powderly 
management, 398 ; convention of 
the American Federation of Labor, 

398; strike on the Reading Railroad, 

398 ; of miners in the Schuylkill 
region, 398 ; in the Wyoming and 
Lackawanna districts, 398 ; of en¬ 
gineers on the Chicago, Burlington 
and Quincy Railroad, 398 ; on the 
Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe 
Railroad,398 ; manifesto from Mas¬ 
ter-Workman Powderly, 399. 

Law, Logic, and Government, 


Dependence of political methods 
on precedent, 187 ; necessary reser¬ 
vations in accepting its authority, 

187 ; dangers of conservatism, 188 ; 
legal relations of American colonies 
to England, 188 ; passive accept¬ 
ance from 1607 to 1760, 189 ; de¬ 
velopment of law under George 
III., 190 ; the judicial system, 191; 
acceptance of external taxation by 
the colonies, 191 ; evolution of the 
colonial theory the result of logical 
treatment of colonies as “civil cor¬ 
porations,” 192 ; legal triumphs 
may be political losses, 192 ; paral¬ 
lel position of the American colo¬ 
nies and Ireland, 192 ; steps lead- 



Public Questions, Amer .—Cont. 
ing to the Act of Union, 193 ; fu¬ 
tility of appeal to it as a legal 
standard, 194; England’s duty to 
remedy Ireland’s discontent, 194 ; 

Mr. Gladstone’s recognition of Eng¬ 
land’s responsibility, 195; America’s 
sympathy with Ireland, 195 ; Amer¬ 
ican constitutional law, 196; applica¬ 
tion of law to social and industrial 
evils—the boycott and the black¬ 
list instanced, 196 ; is law the final 
remedy ? 196 ; responsibility for the 
rectifying of industrial grievances, 

197 ; conditions essential to law’s 
successful operation, 198 ; obliga¬ 
tions of statesmen, 198 ; prevention 
of evils, 199; investigation de¬ 
manded by the management of rail¬ 
roads and “trusts,” 199; dangers 
of shirking responsibility, 200. 


Election of college presidents, 400 ; 
Clark University, 400 ; execution of 
criminals by electricity, 400 ; pop¬ 
ulation of the United States, 400; 

“ blizzards,” 400 ; the Merced 
canal, California, 400 ; New York 
Bay quarantine station, 400. 

Panama Canal. See Public Ques¬ 
tions, Foreign. 

Politics, Practical.201-218 

Politics have not kept pace with 
national advancement, 201 ; insin¬ 
cerity of party platforms, 201 ; the 
instrument of machine politics,202; 
proposed remedy, 203 ; advantages 
of public review of representatives’ 
work, 204; the convention, 205 ; 
evils of over-representation, 205 ; 
membership of party conventions, 


Presidential Canvass, The, 


Opened by the President’s message, 

396 ; James G. Blaine’s views on 
the tariff, 397 ; withdrawal from the 
candidacy, 397 ; action of the Re¬ 
publican and Democratic national 
committees, 397. 

Revenue Reform . 395 

Measures to readjust the tariff and 
internal revenue systems and reduce 
the surplus, 395 ; provisions of the 
Mills and Randall bills, 395. 

Revenue, The Dangers of Sur¬ 
plus . .78-87 

Statistics of payment of the public 
debt, 78 ; made easy by difficulty of 
reducing taxes, 78 ; Federal expen¬ 
ditures, 79 ; sinking fund, 79 ; sur¬ 
plus fund, 79 ; tabular statement of 
government income and expendi¬ 
tures, 80; influence of financial 
control on constitutional develop¬ 
ment, 82 ; demoralizing effect of 


Public Questions, Amer.-Co»/. 

irresponsibility, 82; frauds made 
possible illustrated by pension acts, 

82 ; surplus a corruption fund, 83 ; 
necessity of extending the scope 
of government powers, 85 ; distri¬ 
bution of power between political 
centres, 85 ; surplus under Federal 
control a menace to administrative 
functions of States, 85 ; commercial 
dangers from contraction of circula¬ 
tion, 86; the situation emphasized 
by the state of the public debt, 87 ; 
need of new measures, 87. 

Temperance Reform . 399 

Prohibition amendments defeated 
in Oregon and Tennessee, 399 ; ex¬ 
citing election in Atlanta, Ga., 399; 
right of a State to pass prohibitory 
laws, 399 ; New Jersey and New 
York high license bills, 399 ; Iowa 
law interfering with inter-state com¬ 
merce, 399. 

Public Questions, Foreign— 

Africa. 409 

Settlement of Ismail Pasha’s claims, 

409; attack upon Suakim, 409; 
death of the Sultan of Zanzibar.409. 

Asia .409-410 

Measures against popular excite¬ 
ment in Japan, 409; overflow of 
the Yellow River, with large loss of 
life, 410; severe earthquake in 
China, 410 ; appointment of minis¬ 
ters from Corea, 410 ; railway con¬ 
struction in Siam, 410. 

Austria-Hungary. 408 

Grant to the war department, 408 ; 
revision of the Military Service 
Law, 408 ; construction of State 
railways,408 ; Austro-Italian treaty 
of commerce, 408 ; proposed in¬ 
crease in the army, 408. 

Canada. 404 

Trade relations with the United 
States, 404 ; Lord Stanley ap¬ 
pointed Governor-General, 404 ; 
troubles in Manitoba, 404 ; Gover¬ 
nor-General’s speech opening second 
session of Parliament, 404. 


The Caffarel-Wilson scandal— 
selling of civil decorations, 405 ; 
resignation of President Grevy, 

405 ; detailed results of the presi¬ 
dential election, 405 ; attempt to 
assassinate M. Ferry, 405 ; cabinet 
officers, 405 ; the Wilson-Caffarel 
trials, 4 o 6 ; election of Senators, 

406 ; measures urged by the Cham¬ 
ber of Deputies in opposition to 
the government, 406 ; resignation 
of the Tirard Ministry, 406 ; Gen¬ 
eral Boulanger, 406. 

French Provincial Spirit, The, 




Public Questions, Foreign— Cont. 
Egotism of the French as a 
nation, 323 ; their idea of foreign 
travel, 324 ; attitude toward for¬ 
eigners, 324 ; growing importance 
of the industrial spirit in national 
life, 325 ; France’s provincial neg¬ 
lect of industrialism, 326 ; effect on 
trade, 326 ; loss of national posi¬ 
tion and individual development, 

328 ; survival of the military spirit, 

328 ; self-appreciation and igno¬ 
rance of foreign accomplishment, 

329 ; subordination of the indi¬ 
vidual to the state, 330 ; character¬ 
istic frankness of the French in 
judging themselves, 331 ; represen¬ 
tative character of national enter¬ 
prises, 332 ; the provincial spirit 
national, not individual, 333 ; indi¬ 
vidual freedom from amateur and 
from pedantic self-concentration, 

334; religious homogeneousness 
a cosmopolitan influence, 335; 
humanizing effect of unity in 
religion, 335 ; tendencies of con¬ 
troversy, 337 ; the Frenchman’s 
answer to the charge of provincial 
ism, 338. 

Germany .406-407 

Death of- Emperor William I. 
(March 9, 1888), 406; illness of 
the Crown Prince Frederick, 406 ; 
succession to the throne, 406 ; proc¬ 
lamation to the people, 406 ; Bis¬ 
marck’s attitude, 406 ; the Crown 
Prince authorized to represent the 
Emperor, 407 ; legislation regard¬ 
ing Socialists, 407 ; Military Loan 
Bill, 407; financial condition of 
the empire, 407 ; increase in reve¬ 
nues, 407. 

Great Britain .400-404 

Enforcement of the Crimes Act, 

400 ; William O’Brien’s imprison¬ 
ment, 400 ; arrest of Wilfrid Blunt, 

401; trial of T. D. Sullivan, Lord 
Mayor of Dublin, 401; other arrests 
under the Crimes Act, 401 ; contri¬ 
butions from America for evicted 
tenants, 401 ; labor demonstrations 
in London, 401 ; riots in Trafalgar 
Square, 402 ; congress of the Na¬ 
tional Liberal Federation, Not¬ 
tingham, 402 ; Gladstone’s review of 
the situation in Ireland, 402 ; ad¬ 
ministration of the Crimes Act, 

402 ; statistics of decrease of crime, 

402 ; the boycott in Ireland, 403 ; 
prosecution of newspapers sus¬ 
pended, 403 ; changes in parliamen¬ 
tary rules of procedure, 403 ; efforts 
for military and naval reform, 403 ; 
proposed refunding of the national 
debt, 403 ; local government bill 
for England and Wales, 403 ; Mr. 

Public Questions, Foreign— Cont. 
Parnell’s Arrears of Rent Bill, 403 ; 
Budget statistics, 403; bye-elec¬ 
tions, 403 ; convention with France 
regarding the Suez Canal, 404 ; 
concerning the New Hebrides, 

404 ; necrology, 404. 

Hawaiian Islands. 410 

Reduction of salaries of State 
officials, 410; the King’s veto 
right, 410. 

Italy. .:.407-408 

Financial deficit, 407 ; Jubilee of 
the Pope, 408 ; proposed reorgan¬ 
ization of central administration, 

408 ; war with Abyssinia, 408. 

Japan, Foreign Jurisdiction in, 


Introduction of extra-territorial law 
into Japan, 207 ; provisions for for¬ 
eign jurisdiction, 207 ; Lord Elgin’s 
treaty, 20S ; perversion of original 
principles in the development of 
foreign relations, 209 ; cooperative 
policy of diplomatists, 209 ; aggres¬ 
sions under this policy, 210 ; sub¬ 
version of Japanese authority, 211; 
consequences, 211 ; commercial 
abuses, 212 ; usurpation of railroad 
management, 212 ; other evils, 212 ; 
introduction of cholera through for¬ 
eign presumption, 213 ; inadequacy 
of consular authority for general 
government, 217 ; the English tri¬ 
bunals, 216 ; United States consu¬ 
lar courts, 216 ; code of laws pro¬ 
posed by the Japanese, 217 ; impos¬ 
sibility of national prosperity under 
present relations, 217; opportunity 
of the United States, 218. 

Japan, The Tariff in.66-77 

Political and commercial relations 
of Japan, 66; treaty negotiated 
by Mr. Harris, 1858, 66 ; honesty 
of purpose, 67 ; provisions, 67 ; 
occasion for hasty preparation, 67 ; 
Lord Elgin’s embassy, 68 ; a fatal 
concession to English power, 69 ; 
failure of Mr. Harris’s efforts for 
treaty revision, 69 ; intimidation of 
the Japanese in the interests of 
European trade, 69 ; course of the 
English representative, 70 ; treaty 
exacted in 1866, 71 ; adjustment of 
duties, 71 ; British competition with 
Japanese manufactures, 72 ; finan¬ 
cial troubles of the government, 73; 
outrages of English ambassador, 

74 ; present condition of Japanese 
affairs, 75 ; responsibility of the 

United States, 76 ; duty to Japan, 



Constitutional Amendment, 409; 
authorized loan negotiated, 409. 

New South Wales. 410 



Public Questions, Foreign— Cont. 
Centenary celebration, 410. 

Panama Canal, The. .408-409 

Date fixed for opening, 408 ; dis¬ 
couraging report of the Colombian 
inspector, 408 ; attempt to issue 
lottery loans, 409 ; construction of 
locks, 409. See also Ship-canals at 
the American Isthmus, 385-387. 

Race Theories and European 


Home of the Aryans, 1 ; rival 
claims of the Asiatic and European 
theories, 2 ; different interpreta¬ 
tions of the term Aryan, 2 ; race 
and language not co extensive, 3 ; 

Dr. Penka’s grouping of Aryan¬ 
speaking peoples according to phys¬ 
ical characteristics, 3 ; comparison 
of the Teuto-Scandic and Slavo- 
Celtic types—the former best rep¬ 
resenting the Aryan stock, 4; 
origin of the Teuto-Scandians, 
argued from physical characteris¬ 
tics, 6 ; settlement in northern Eu¬ 
rope, 8 ; spread of the Slavo-Celtic 
and Iberian elements, 8 ; Scandi¬ 
navian conquests of the Wicking 
period, 8 ; subjection of the Aryans 
to climatic law, 9 ; effect on dis¬ 
tribution in European countries, 

10 ; bearing of Dr. Penka’s theory 
on the study of language, 10 ; ten¬ 
dencies of Aryan influence illus¬ 
trated by its proportional results, 

11 ; the struggle with Anaryan peo¬ 
ples, 112 ; stimulus supplied to na¬ 
tional development by the antithe¬ 
sis of race elements, 113 ; con¬ 
trasting characteristics of Aryans 
and non-Aryans, 114 ; illustration 
furnished by the English, 115 ; 
effect of mixture of race on the 
English Church, 115 ; influence of 
race in the French Revolution and 
subsequent European conflicts, 16 ; 
on the struggle for liberty in Ire¬ 
land, 16 ; bearing of race on pres¬ 
ent political relations, 16. 

Russia .407 

Dismissal of the Minister of Public 
Instruction, and the Chief Press 
Censor, 407 ; visit of the Tsar to 
Berlin, 407 ; Nihilist plots, 407 ; 
Proposed metallic monetary stan¬ 
dard, 407. 

Ship-Canals at the American 


Review of the work of the Panama 
Canal Company, 385 ; advantages 
of the Nicaragua project, 386 ; 
importance of the control of an in- 
teroceanic canal, 387. See also Pan¬ 
ama Canal, 408-409. 

South America . 409 

Revolution in Colombia, 409 ; ex- 


Public Questions, Foreign— Cont. 
port duties abolished by the Argen¬ 
tine Republic, 409; dispute be¬ 
tween Venezuela and Great Britain, 

409 ; elections in Uruguay, 409 ; 
emancipation of slaves in Brazil, 

409 ; the Brazilian Ministry, 409. 

Spain .408 

Residence of ex-Queen Isabella, 

408 ; refunding of the floating debt 
($33,000,000), 408 ; trial by jury, 

408; celebration of the discovery 
of America, 408. 

War-clouds, European .404-405 

Threatening movements, 404 ; war 
conferences at Vienna, 404 ; Austro- 
German treaty, 404 ; treaty between 
Italy and Germany, 404 ; Bismarck’s 
speech in the Reichstag, 404 ; situ¬ 
ation in Bulgaria, 404 ; relations be¬ 
tween England and Italy, 404 ; as¬ 
surances of President Carnot, 405 ; 
policy of Emperor Frederick, 405. 

Race theories and European politics... 1-17 

Railroad management in Japan. 212 

Railroad building in Bulgaria.317-319 

Religion and Morality— 

American Life, Our .35-46 

See Public Questions, American. 
Christianity and the Secular 

Spirit .175-186 

Unrecognized power of Christianity, 

175 ; the spirit of the times, 175 ; 
relations of Christianity and the 
scientific spirit, 176 ; development 
of astronomical science, 177 ; bio¬ 
logical science, 178 ; the discussion 
of evolution, 179 ; spirit of historic 
inquiry, 180 ; study of comparative 
religions, 181 ; testimony of Sir 
Monier Williams, 182 ; of Prof. 

Max Muller, 183 ; Christianity and 
Islamism in Africa, 183 ; historical 
and topographical inquiries in Bible 
lands, 184; Christianity and social 
problems, 184 ; its mission to the 
poor, 185 ; philosophy of Christ’s 

method, 186. 

Ethics and Economics. 339*347 

See Public Questions, American. 

Religion in France. 335 

Religious controversy, tendencies of... 337 

Revenue, dangers of surplus.78-87 

Revenue reform. 395 

Revolution, American, France’s share 


Riots in London.401 


Russia. 407 

Russia and Bulgaria.306-322 

San Stefano, treaty of. 307 



Spectra of meteorites, 412 ; oxygen 



Science — Continued. 

and carbon in the sun, 413 ; transit 
of Venus, 413; discoveries of 
minor planets, 414. 

Chemistry.. .414-416 

Isolation of fluorine, 414 ; atomic 
weight of oxygen, 415 ; artificial 
preparation of glucose, 415 ; effect 
of certain salts in solution on oxy¬ 
gen and sulphur dioxide, 415 ; 
germanium found in euxenite, 415 ; 
Professor Van’t Hoff’s tri-dimen- 
sional formulae, 415. 

Dreams of the Blind, The_18-34 

Preponderating influence of the 
sense of sight, 18 ; the visualizing 
faculty, iS ; relation of the senses 
to memory, 19; dream-vision sub¬ 
ject to individual characteristics, ig ; 
sight necessary to induce certain 
mental activities, 20; occurrence 
of dream-vision after total blind¬ 
ness, 21 ; critical period of becom¬ 
ing blind, 21 ; data furnished by 
Dr. G. Heermann, 22 ; compara¬ 
tive clearness of dream-vision and 
actual vision in the partially blind, 

22 ; how much must be seen to 
dream of seeing, 23 ; dependence 
of perceptive and emotional powers 
on sense-perception, 24; dreams 
of the deaf and crippled, 24; 
Laura Bridgman, 25 ; further illus¬ 
tration, 26 ; influence of sight, sex, 
and age on frequency of dreams, 

27; reproduction of impressions 
received before and after blind¬ 
ness, 28 ; relative predominance of 
impressions from recent and dis¬ 
tant experiences, 28 ; vividness of 
dreams of events occurring before 
and after blindness, 29 ; imaginary 
faces, 29 ; limited imagination of 
those without sight, 30 ; relative 
importance of the senses to the 
blind, 30 ; “ facial perception,” 31 ; 
notions of color, 31 ; analogies 
between color and sound, 32 ; 
examples of dreams, 32 ; functions 
of the cortical centres of the brain, 

33 ; significance of the “ critical 
period.” 34. 

Germ Diseases.141-143 

Difficulty of proving the germ 
theory, 142 ; method employed, 

142 ; results in specific diseases 
experimented on, 142 ; operation 
of bacteria, 143 ; influence of the 
theory on medical practice, 143. 


Professorship in the Sorbonne 
teaching Darwinism, 416 ; new 
periodicals, 416 ; necrology, 416. 

Natural Sciences, The.416 

Pasteur’s method of inoculation, 


Science — Continued. 

416 ; peculiar formation of wings 
of certain birds, 416 ; elevations of 
the earth’s surface, 416 ; true teeth 
in the young ornithorhyncus, 416 ; 
connection of earth tremors and 
high winds in Japan, 416. 

Physics. 414 

Limit of magnetization in iron, 414; 
change in magnetic permeability, 

414 ; chemical relations of iron in a 
magnetic field, 414 ; wave-length 
of light, 414 ; effect of the ultra¬ 
violet rays on the electric spark, 

414; determination of the ratio 
between the electrostatic and the 
electromagnetic units, 414. 

Science and Christianity. 176 

Serbia. 307 

Ship-canals at the American Isthmus.. 


Siam. 410 

Sinking-fund, Federal. 79 

Slavo-Celtic race. 4 

South America. 409 

Spain. 408 

Spectra of meteorites. 412 

State administrative functions. 85 

Storms in 1888. 400 

Strikes, among miners and railroad men 398 

Style, poetical. 146 

Social distinctions in the church. 43 

Social life in America. 39 

Social problems and Christianity. 184 

Social questions and law. 196 

Surplus revenue, dangers of. 78—87 

Sweden .. 408 

Tariff bills. 395 

Tariff in Japan. 66-77 

Tariff reform. 393 

Tariff. See Dangers of Surplus Revenue. 


Taxes, difficulty of reducing. 78 

Temperance reform. 399 

Teuto-Scandic race. 4 

“The Marriage of Marie Modeste,” a 


Theory, mutability of. 165 

Thought, the science of. 285-288 

Transit of Venus. 413 

Trials and court decisions. 397 

Turkey’s relations with Bulgaria.. .306-322 

“Uncle Mingo’s ‘Speculations,’” a 

story. 121-133 

Union, Act of (1800). 193 

United States’ population.35, 400 

Virgin of Guadaloupe. 221 

War-clouds, European. 4 ° 4 “ 4°5 

Wealth, function of. 345 

Workmen’s complaints. *97 



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